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Boa tarde' date=' Abelha!

Ainda dando bola pra reputação? eca!


Sempre tem alguém que dê, né, hehehe.

Se for pelo número de caracteres achei q o Scofield ganhasse fácil!

Pq não incluem o Gral na reputação? Ele não faz parte do Forum?

Assim o Renato e...seus Blue Caps tb tem chance!06
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Boa tarde' date=' Abelha!
Ainda dando bola pra reputação? eca!
Sempre tem alguém que dê, né, hehehe.

 

Se for pelo número de caracteres achei q o Scofield ganhasse fácil!

 

Pq não incluem o Gral na reputação? Ele não faz parte do Forum?

 

Assim o Renato e...seus Blue Caps tb tem chance!smileys/06.gif" height="17" width="17" align="absmiddle" alt="06" />

 

 

 

Mas o Geral conta pra reputação. Mas os pontos só começaram a ser computados depois da implantação do novo sistema, o que veio antes não vale.

 

 

 

Mudando de assunto, não sou muito de balada, mas a banda de um amigo meu vai tocar hoje e eu vou lá conferir. Tomara que o bar seja legal, é um lugar que não conheço (pra quem é de POA, é no Beco).

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Bom dia! Olha a CMJ voltando a funcionar, hehehe.

 

 

 

Meu deus' date=' quanto #mimimi no tópico Preconceito.[/quote']

 

 

 

Nem to achando ruim, o Dook e o Nostromo tão batendo papo, ao invés de imporem suas verdades absolutas. Isso demonstra amadurecimento.

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Spider-Man

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

"Peter Parker" redirects here. For other uses, see Peter Parker (disambiguation).

 

This article is about the superhero. For other uses, see Spider-Man (disambiguation).

 

 

 

Spider-Man

 

 

 

From The Amazing Spider-Man #547 (March 2008)

 

Art by Steve McNiven & Dexter Vines

 

Publication information

 

Publisher     Marvel Comics

 

First appearance     Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962)

 

Created by     Stan Lee, Steve Ditko

 

In-story information

 

Alter ego     Peter Benjamin Parker

 

Species     Human Mutate

 

Team affiliations     Daily Bugle

 

Front Line

 

New Fantastic Four

 

Avengers

 

New Avengers

 

Future Foundation

 

Partnerships     Venom

 

Scarlet Spider

 

Wolverine

 

Human Torch

 

Daredevil

 

Black Cat

 

Punisher

 

Toxin

 

Iron Man

 

Ms. Marvel

 

Notable aliases     Ricochet, Dusk, Prodigy, Hornet, Ben Reilly/Scarlet Spider

 

Abilities     

 

 

 

Superhuman strength, speed, stamina, agility, reflexes, and durability

 

Accelerated healing factor

 

Ability to cling to most surfaces

 

Able to shoot extremely strong and durable spider-web strings from wrists

 

Precognitive spider sense

 

Genius-level intellect

 

Master hand-to-hand combatant

 

Spider-Man is a fictional Marvel Comics superhero. The character was created by writer-editor Stan Lee and writer-artist Steve Ditko. He first appeared in Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962). Lee and Ditko conceived of the character as an orphan being raised by his Aunt May and Uncle Ben, and as a teenager, having to deal with the normal struggles of adolescence in addition to those of a costumed crime fighter. Spider-Man's creators gave him super strength and agility, the ability to cling to most surfaces, shoot spider-webs using devices of his own invention which he called "web-shooters", and react to danger quickly with his "spider-sense", enabling him to combat his foes.

 

When Spider-Man first appeared in the early 1960s, teenagers in superhero comic books were usually relegated to the role of sidekick to the protagonist. The Spider-Man series broke ground by featuring Peter Parker, a teenage high school student to whose "self-obsessions with rejection, inadequacy, and loneliness" young readers could relate.[1] Unlike previous teen heroes such as James Buchanan "Bucky" Barnes and Robin, Spider-Man did not benefit from being the protégé of any adult mentors like Captain America and Batman, and thus had to learn for himself that "with great power there must also come great responsibility"—a line included in a text box in the final panel of the first Spider-Man story, but later retroactively attributed to his guardian, the late Uncle Ben.

 

Marvel has featured Spider-Man in several comic book series, the first and longest-lasting of which is titled The Amazing Spider-Man. Over the years, the Peter Parker character has developed from shy, high school student to troubled but outgoing college student, to married high school teacher to, in the late 2000s, a single freelance photographer, his most typical adult role. He has even been a member of an unofficial splinter group of the Avengers, one of Marvel's flagship superhero teams. In the comics, Spider-Man is often referred to as "Spidey," "web-slinger," "wall-crawler," or "web-head."

 

Spider-Man is one of the most popular and commercially successful superheroes.[2] As Marvel's flagship character and company mascot, he has appeared in many forms of media, including several animated and live-action television shows, syndicated newspaper comic strips, and a successful series of films starring actor Tobey Maguire as the "friendly neighborhood" hero in the first three movies. Andrew Garfield will take over the role of Peter Parker in a planned reboot of the films.[3] Reeve Carney stars as Spider-Man in the 2010 Broadway musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark.[4] Spider-Man placed 3rd on IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of All Time in 2011.[5]

 

Contents [hide]

 

1 Publication history

 

1.1 Creation and development

 

1.2 Commercial success

 

2 Fictional character biography

 

2.1 Early years

 

2.2 Death of Gwen Stacy

 

2.3 Costume change

 

2.4 Marriage

 

2.5 21st-century

 

3 Other versions

 

4 Powers and equipment

 

5 Supporting characters

 

5.1 Enemies

 

6 Cultural influence

 

7 In other media

 

8 Awards and honors

 

9 See also

 

9.1 Selected story arcs

 

10 Notes

 

11 References

 

12 External links

 

Publication history

 

 

 

Creation and development

 

In 1962, with the success of the Fantastic Four, Marvel Comics editor and head writer Stan Lee was casting about for a new superhero idea. He said that the idea for Spider-Man arose from a surge in teenage demand for comic books, and the desire to create a character with whom teens could identify.[6]:1 In his autobiography, Lee cites the non-superhuman pulp magazine crime fighter The Spider as a great influence,[7]:130 and in a multitude of print and video interviews, Lee stated he was further inspired by seeing a spider climb up a wall—adding in his autobiography that he has told that story so often he has become unsure of whether or not this is true.[note 1] Looking back on the creation of Spider-Man, 1990s Marvel editor-in-chief Tom DeFalco stated he did not believe that Spider-Man would have been given a chance in today's comics world, where new characters are vetted with test audiences and marketers.[6]:9 At that time, however, Lee had to get only the consent of Marvel publisher Martin Goodman for the character's approval.[6]:9 In a 1986 interview, Lee described in detail his arguments to overcome Goodman's objections.[note 2] Goodman eventually agreed to let Lee try out Spider-Man in the upcoming final issue of the canceled science-fiction and supernatural anthology series Amazing Adult Fantasy, which was renamed Amazing Fantasy for that single issue, #15 (Aug. 1962).[8]:95

 

Comics historian Greg Theakston says that Lee, after receiving Goodman's approval for the name Spider-Man and the "ordinary teen" concept, approached artist Jack Kirby. Kirby told Lee about an unpublished character on which he collaborated with Joe Simon in the 1950s, in which an orphaned boy living with an old couple finds a magic ring that granted him superhuman powers. Lee and Kirby "immediately sat down for a story conference" and Lee afterward directed Kirby to flesh out the character and draw some pages. Steve Ditko would be the inker.[note 3] When Kirby showed Lee the first six pages, Lee recalled, "I hated the way he was doing it! Not that he did it badly -- it just wasn't the character I wanted; it was too heroic".[9]:12 Lee turned to Ditko, who developed a visual style Lee found satisfactory. Ditko recalled:

 

One of the first things I did was to work up a costume. A vital, visual part of the character. I had to know how he looked ... before I did any breakdowns. For example: A clinging power so he wouldn't have hard shoes or boots, a hidden wrist-shooter versus a web gun and holster, etc. ... I wasn't sure Stan would like the idea of covering the character's face but I did it because it hid an obviously boyish face. It would also add mystery to the character....[10]

 

 

 

 

 

Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962). Cover art by Jack Kirby (penciller) & Steve Ditko (inker).

 

In an early recollection of the character's creation, Ditko described his and Lee's contributions in a mail interview with Gary Martin published in Comic Fan #2 (Summer 1965): "Stan Lee thought the name up. I did costume, web gimmick on wrist & spider signal."[11] At the time, Ditko shared a Manhattan studio with noted fetish artist Eric Stanton, an art-school classmate who, in a 1988 interview with Theakston, recalled that although his contribution to Spider-Man was "almost nil", he and Ditko had "worked on storyboards together and I added a few ideas. But the whole thing was created by Steve on his own... I think I added the business about the webs coming out of his hands".[9]:14

 

Kirby disputed Lee's version of the story, and claimed Lee had minimal involvement in the character's creation. According to Kirby, the idea for Spider-Man had originated with Kirby and Joe Simon, who in the 1950s had developed a character called The Silver Spider for the Crestwood comic Black Magic, who was subsequently not used.[note 4] Simon, in his 1990 autobiography, disputed Kirby's account, asserting that Black Magic was not a factor, and that he (Simon) devised the name "Spider-Man" (later changed to "The Silver Spider"), while Kirby outlined the character's story and powers. Simon later elaborated that his and Kirby's character conception became the basis for Simon's Archie Comics superhero the Fly. Artist Steve Ditko stated that Lee liked the name Hawkman from DC Comics, and that "Spider-Man" was an outgrowth of that interest.[10] The hyphen was included in the character's name to avoid confusion with DC Comics' Superman.[12]

 

Simon concurred that Kirby had shown the original Spider-Man version to Lee, who liked the idea and assigned Kirby to draw sample pages of the new character but disliked the results—in Simon's description, "Captain America with cobwebs".[note 5] Writer Mark Evanier notes that Lee's reasoning that Kirby's character was too heroic seems unlikely—Kirby still drew the covers for the first issues of Spider-Man. Likewise, Kirby's given reason that he was "too busy" to also draw Spider-Man in addition to his other duties seems false, as Kirby was, in Evanier's words, "always busy".[13]:127 Neither Lee's nor Kirby's explanation explains why key story elements like the magic ring were dropped; Evanier states that the most plausible explanation for the sudden change was that Goodman, or one of his assistants, decided that Spider-Man as drawn and envisioned by Kirby was too similar to the Fly.[13]:127

 

Author and Ditko scholar Blake Bell writes that it was Ditko who noted the similarities to the Fly. Ditko recalled that, "Stan called Jack about the Fly", adding that "[d]ays later, Stan told me I would be penciling the story panel breakdowns from Stan's synopsis". It was at this point that the nature of the strip changed. "Out went the magic ring, adult Spider-Man and whatever legend ideas that Spider-Man story would have contained". Lee gave Ditko the premise of a teenager bitten by a spider and developing powers, a premise Ditko would expand upon to the point he became what Bell describes as "the first work for hire artist of his generation to create and control the narrative arc of his series". On the issue of the initial creation, Ditko states, "I still don't know whose idea was Spider-Man".[14] Kirby noted in a 1971 interview that it was Ditko who "got Spider-Man to roll, and the thing caught on because of what he did".[15] Lee, while claiming credit for the initial idea, has acknowledged Ditko's role, stating, "If Steve wants to be called co-creator, I think he deserves [it]".[16] Writer Al Nickerson believes "that Stan Lee and Steve Ditko created the Spider-Man that we are familiar with today [but that] ultimately, Spider-Man came into existence, and prospered, through the efforts of not just one or two, but many, comic book creators".[17]

 

In 2008, an anonymous donor bequeathed the Library of Congress the original 24 pages of Ditko art of Amazing Fantasy #15, including Spider-Man's debut and the stories "The Bell-Ringer", "Man in the Mummy Case", and "There Are Martians Among Us".[18]

 

 

 

 

 

The Amazing Spider-Man #23 (April 1965), featuring the Green Goblin. Cover art by co-creator Steve Ditko.

 

Commercial success

 

A few months after Spider-Man's introduction in Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962), publisher Martin Goodman reviewed the sales figures for that issue and was shocked to find it to have been one of the nascent Marvel's highest-selling comics.[8]:97 A solo ongoing series followed, beginning with The Amazing Spider-Man #1 (March 1963). The title eventually became Marvel's top-selling series[1]:211 with the character swiftly becoming a cultural icon; a 1965 Esquire poll of college campuses found that college students ranked Spider-Man and fellow Marvel hero the Hulk alongside Bob Dylan and Che Guevara as their favorite revolutionary icons. One interviewee selected Spider-Man because he was "beset by woes, money problems, and the question of existence. In short, he is one of us."[1]:223 Following Ditko's departure after issue #38 (July 1966), John Romita, Sr. replaced him as artist, and would provide the pencil drawings of the character over the next several years. In 1968, Romita would also draw the character's extra-length stories in the magazine The Spectacular Spider-Man, a graphic novel precursor designed to appeal to older readers but which lasted only two issues.[19] Nonetheless, it represented the first Spider-Man spin-off publication, aside from the original series' summer annuals that began in 1964.

 

An early 1970s Spider-Man story led to the revision of the Comics Code. Previously, the Code forbade the depiction of the use of illegal drugs, even negatively. However, in 1970, the Nixon administration's Department of Health, Education, and Welfare asked Stan Lee to publish an anti-drug message in one of Marvel's top-selling titles.[1]:239 Lee chose the top-selling The Amazing Spider-Man; issues #96–98 (May–July 1971) feature a story arc depicting the negative effects of drug use. In the story, Peter Parker's friend Harry Osborn becomes addicted to pills. When Spider-Man fights the Green Goblin (Norman Osborn, Harry's father), Spider-Man defeats the Green Goblin, by revealing Harry's drug addiction. While the story had a clear anti-drug message, the Comics Code Authority refused to issue its seal of approval. Marvel nevertheless published the three issues without the Comics Code Authority's approval or seal. The issues sold so well that the industry's self-censorship was undercut[1]:239 and the Code was subsequently revised.

 

 

 

 

 

The Amazing Spider-Man #96 (May 1971), the first of three non-Comics Code issues that prompted the Code's first update, allowing comics to show the negative effects of illegal-drug use. Cover art by Gil Kane.

 

In 1972, a second monthly ongoing series starring Spider-Man began: Marvel Team-Up, in which Spider-Man was paired with other superheroes and villains. In 1976, his second solo series, The Spectacular Spider-Man began running parallel to the main series. A third series featuring Spider-Man, Web of Spider-Man, launched in 1985, replacing Marvel Team-Up. The launch of a fourth monthly title in 1990, the "adjectiveless" Spider-Man (with the storyline "Torment"), written and drawn by popular artist Todd McFarlane, debuted with several different covers, all with the same interior content. The various versions combined sold over 3 million copies, an industry record at the time.[1]:279 There have generally been at least two ongoing Spider-Man series at any time. Several limited series, one-shots, and loosely related comics have also been published, and Spider-Man makes frequent cameos and guest appearances in other comic series.

 

The original Amazing Spider-Man ran through issue #441 (Nov. 1998). Writer-artist John Byrne then revamped the origin of Spider-Man in the 13-issue limited series Spider-Man: Chapter One (Dec. 1998 - Oct. 1999, with an issue #0 midway through and some months containing two issues), similar to Byrne's adding details and some revisions to Superman's origin in DC Comics' The Man of Steel. Running concurrently, The Amazing Spider-Man was restarted with vol. 2, #1 (Jan. 1999). With what would have been vol. 2, #59, Marvel reintroduced the original numbering, starting with #500 (Dec. 2003).

 

By the end of 2007, Spider-Man regularly appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man, New Avengers, Spider-Man Family, and various limited series in mainstream Marvel Comics continuity, as well as in the alternate-universe series The Amazing Spider-Girl, the Ultimate Universe title Ultimate Spider-Man, the alternate-universe tween series Spider-Man Loves Mary Jane, the alternate-universe children's series Marvel Adventures Spider-Man, and Marvel Adventures: The Avengers.

 

When primary series The Amazing Spider-Man reached issue #545 (Dec. 2007), Marvel dropped its spin-off ongoing series and instead began publishing The Amazing Spider-Man three times monthly, beginning with #546-549 (each Jan. 2008). The three times monthly scheduling of The Amazing Spider-Man lasted until November 2010 when the comic book was increased from 22 pages to 30 pages each issue and published only twice a month, beginning with #648-649 (each Nov. 2010).

 

Fictional character biography

 

 

 

This section traces the ongoing narrative of the fictional Marvel Comics' character. It refers to the character's mainstream comic book appearances and does not reflect representations of Spider-Man in other media.

 

As comics historian Peter Sanderson writes, "People often say glibly that Marvel succeeded by blending super hero adventure stories with soap opera. What Lee and Ditko actually did in The Amazing Spider-Man was to make the series an ongoing novelistic chronicle of the lead character's life. Most super heroes had problems no more complex or relevant to their readers' lives than thwarting this month's bad guys.... Parker had far more serious concern in his life: coming to terms with the death of a loved one, falling in love for the first time, struggling to make a living, and undergoing crises of conscience."[20]

 

Early years

 

 

 

 

 

The spider bite that gave Peter Parker his powers. Amazing Fantasy #15, art by Steve Ditko.

 

In Forest Hills, Queens, New York City,[21] high school student Peter Parker is a science whiz orphan living with his Uncle Ben and Aunt May. As depicted in Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962), he is bitten by a radioactive spider at a science exhibit and "acquires the agility and proportionate strength of an arachnid."[22] Along with super strength, he gains the ability to adhere to walls and ceilings. Through his native knack for science, he develops a gadget that lets him fire adhesive webbing of his own design through small, wrist-mounted barrels. Initially seeking to capitalize on his new abilities, he dons a costume and, as "Spider-Man", becomes a novelty television star. However, "He blithely ignores the chance to stop a fleeing thief, [and] his indifference ironically catches up with him when the same criminal later robs and kills his Uncle Ben."[23] Spider-Man tracks and subdues the killer and learns, in the story's next-to-last caption, "With great power there must also come—great responsibility!"[23]

 

Despite his superpowers, Parker struggles to help his widowed aunt pay rent, is taunted by his peers—particularly football star Flash Thompson—and, as Spider-Man, engenders the editorial wrath of newspaper publisher J. Jonah Jameson.[24] As one contemporaneous journalist observed, "Spider-Man has a terrible identity problem, a marked inferiority complex, and a fear of women. He is anti-social, castration-ridden, racked with Oedipal guilt, and accident-prone ... [a] functioning neurotic".[21] Agonizing over his choices, always attempting to do right, he is nonetheless viewed with suspicion by the authorities, who seem unsure as to whether he is a helpful vigilante or a clever criminal.[25]

 

Notes cultural historian Bradford W. Wright,

 

Spider-Man's plight was to be misunderstood and persecuted by the very public that he swore to protect. In the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man, J. Jonah Jameson, publisher of the Daily Bugle, launches an editorial campaign against the "Spider-Man menace." The resulting negative publicity exacerbates popular suspicions about the mysterious Spider-Man and makes it impossible for him to earn any more money by performing. Eventually, the bad press leads the authorities to brand him an outlaw. Ironically, Peter finally lands a job as a photographer for Jameson's Daily Bugle.[1]:212

 

He quickly faces such new supervillains as the Chameleon (introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man #1, March 1963), the Vulture (#2, May 1963), Dr. Octopus (#3, July 1963), the Sandman (#4, Sept. 1963), the Lizard (#6, Nov. 1963), Electro (#9, Feb. 1964), Mysterio (#13, June 1964), the Green Goblin (#14, July 1964), Kraven the Hunter (#15, Aug. 1964), and the Scorpion (#20, Jan. 1965).[26] In his personal life, he begins dating Jameson's secretary, Betty Brant,[27] and in issue #28 (Sept. 1965),[26] he graduates from high school and enrolls at Empire State University, a fictional institution evoking the real-life Columbia University and New York University.[28] There he begins to balance the aspects of his life and goes from being a social outcast to a young adult with friends, including erstwhile antagonist Thompson.[29] He meets Harry Osborn, who will become his best friend and college roommate, and future girlfriend Gwen Stacy (both in issue #31, Dec. 1965).[26][30] He discovers that Harry Osborn's industrialist father, Norman Osborn, is secretly the Green Goblin, who in turn discovers Spider-Man's true identity.[31]

 

These mid-1960s stories reflected the political tensions of the time, as early 1960s Marvel stories had often dealt with the Cold War and Communism.[1]:220-223 As Wright observes,

 

From his high-school beginnings to his entry into college life, Spider-Man remained the superhero most relevant to the world of young people. Fittingly, then, his comic book also contained some of the earliest references to the politics of young people. In 1968, in the wake of actual militant student demonstrations at Columbia University, Peter Parker finds himself in the midst of similar unrest at his Empire State University. ... Peter has to reconcile his natural sympathy for the students with his assumed obligation to combat lawlessness as Spider-Man. As a law-upholding liberal, he finds himself caught between militant leftism and angry conservatives.[1]:234-235

 

Following months of attempts by Aunt May to introduce him to her friend Anna Watson's niece, Mary Jane Watson, Parker agrees to a date and discovers, at the climax of issue #42 (Nov. 1966),[26] that Mary Jane is a beautiful, vivacious redhead.[32] Artist John Romita, Sr. recalled that writer and editor-in-chief Stan Lee "wanted her to look something like a go-go girl. I used Ann-Margret from the movie Bye Bye Birdie, as a guide, using her coloring, the shape of her face, her red hair and her form-fitting short skirts. I exaggerated her dimples and the cleft in her chin."[33] Regardless, Parker begins dating Gwen Stacy.[34] As Spider-Man, he has his first encounters with supervillains the Rhino (#41, Oct. 1966)—the first original Lee/Romita Spider-Man villain[35]—the Shocker (#46, March 1967), and the physically powerful and well-connected criminal capo Wilson Fisk, also known as the Kingpin (#50, July 1967).[26] Gwen's Stacy's father, New York City Police detective captain George Stacy is accidentally killed during a battle between Spider-Man and Doctor Octopus (#90, Nov. 1970).[36]

 

Death of Gwen Stacy

 

In issue #121 (June 1973),[26] the Green Goblin throws Gwen Stacy from a tower of either the Brooklyn Bridge (as depicted in the art) or the George Washington Bridge (as given in the text).[37][38] She dies during Spider-Man's rescue attempt; a note on the letters page of issue #125 states: "It saddens us to say that the whiplash effect she underwent when Spidey's webbing stopped her so suddenly was, in fact, what killed her."[39] The following issue, the Goblin appears to accidentally kill himself in the ensuing battle with Spider-Man.

 

Working through his grief, Parker eventually develops tentative feelings toward Watson, and the two "become confidants rather than lovers."[40] Parker graduates from college in issue #185,[26] and becomes involved with the shy Debra Whitman and the extroverted, flirtatious costumed thief Felicia Hardy, the Black Cat,[41] whom he meets in issue #194 (July 1979).[26]

 

In the 200th issue (Jan. 1980), Spider-Man confronts the burglar who killed his uncle, in a story written by Marv Wolfman, with the final page scripted by character co-creator Stan Lee. As one historian wrote, "This event was still quite recent to Peter, as, thanks to the magic of comics, only four or five years had passed since he was bitten by the spider."[42] In issue #257 (Oct. 1984), Watson reveals to Parker that she knows he is Spider-Man.[43]

 

Costume change

 

From 1984 to 1988, Spider-Man wore a different costume than his original. Black with a white spider design, this new costume originated in the Marvel Super-Heroes Secret Wars limited series, on an alien planet where Spider-Man participates in a battle between Earth's major superheroes and villains. The first comic book appearances of the suit occurred in three comics all cover dated May 1984: Marvel Team-Up #141,[44] The Amazing Spider-Man #252,[26] and The Spectacular Spider-Man #90.[45] In a later-published but chronologically earlier story in Marvel Super-Heroes Secret Wars #8 (Dec. 1984),[46] Spider-Man's original red-and-blue costume is destroyed in a battle; Parker comes across a machine that conjures him a uniform that responds to his thoughts, greatly enhances his powers, provides him with its own supply of web-fluid, and can change its appearance at his command. Sometime after his return to Earth, however, he discovers in issue #258 (Nov. 1984)[26] that the costume is actually an alien symbiote bent on permanently bonding with its host.[47] Parker rejects and defeats the symbiote in the spin-off title Web of Spider-Man #1 (April 1985)[48] and begins wearing a cloth replica, initially alternating between it and his original costume, then wearing it full-time after his last original is destroyed in battle against the villain Magma in Web of Spider-Man #17-#18).[49] NYPD detective Jean DeWolff, one of Parker's friends, is murdered in a storyline running through The Spectacular Spider-Man #107-110 (Oct. 1985 - Jan. 1986),[50] Meanwhile, the symbiote merges with reporter Eddie Brock to become the cannibalistic supervillain Venom in issue #298 (May 1988),[26] and Parker returns to his original red and blue costume.

 

Not unexpectedly, the change to a longstanding character's iconic design met with controversy, "with many hardcore comics fans decrying it as tantamount to sacrilege. Spider-Man's traditional red and blue costume was iconic, they argued, on par with those of his D.C. rivals Superman and Batman. The negative response was puzzling for a medium where constant change is the norm: characters are regularly killed off and brought back from the dead."[51]

 

Marriage

 

Parker proposes to Watson in The Amazing Spider-Man #290 (July 1987), and she accepts two issues later, with the wedding taking place in The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #21 (1987)—promoted with a real-life mock wedding using actors at Shea Stadium, with Stan Lee officiating, on June 5, 1987.[52] David Michelinie, who scripted based on a plot by editor-in-chief Jim Shooter, said in 2007, "I didn't think they actually should [have gotten] married. ... I had actually planned another version, one that wasn't used."[52] Parker published a book of Spider-Man photographs, Webs.[53] and returned to his Empire State University graduate studies in biochemistry in #310 (Dec. 1988).[26]

 

In the controversial[54] 1990s storyline the "Clone Saga", a clone of Parker, created in 1970s comics by insane scientist Miles Warren, a.k.a. the supervillain the Jackal, returns to New York City upon hearing of Aunt May's health worsening. The clone had lived incognito as "Ben Reilly", but now assumes the superhero guise the Scarlet Spider and allies with Parker. To the surprise of both, new tests indicate "Reilly" is the original and "Parker" the clone.[55] Complicating matters, Watson announces in The Spectacular Spider-Man #220 (Jan. 1995) that she is pregnant with Parker's baby.[26] Later, however, a resurrected Green Goblin (Norman Osborn) has Watson poisoned, causing premature labor and the death of her and Parker's unborn daughter.[56] The Goblin had also switched the results of the clone test in an attempt to destroy Parker's life by making him believe himself to be the clone. Reilly is killed while saving Parker, in Peter Parker: Spider-Man #75 (Dec. 1996), and his body immediately crumbles into dust, confirming Reilly was the clone.[56]

 

In issue #97 (Nov. 1998) of the second series titled Peter Parker: Spider-Man,[57] Parker learns his Aunt May was kidnapped by Norman Osborn and her apparent death in The Amazing Spider-Man #400 (April 1995) had been a hoax.[58][59] Shortly afterward, in The Amazing Spider-Man vol. 2, #13 (#454, Jan. 2000), Watson is apparently killed in an airplane explosion.[60] She turns up safe and alive in vol. 2, #28 (#469, April 2001),[60] but she and Peter become separated in the following issue.[61]

 

21st-century

 

Babylon 5 creator J. Michael Straczynski began writing The Amazing Spider-Man, illustrated by John Romita Jr., with vol. 2, #30 (#471, June 2001). Two issues later, Parker, now employed as a teacher at his old high school, meets the enigmatic Ezekiel, who possesses similar spider powers and suggests that Parker having gained such abilities might not have been a fluke—that Parker has a connection to a totemic spider spirit. In vol. 2, #37 (#478, Jan. 2002), May discovers her nephew Parker is Spider-Man, leading to a new openness in their relationship.[59] Parker and Watson reconcile in vol. 2, #50 (#491, April 2003),[59] and in #512 (Nov. 2004)—the original issue numbering having returned with #500—Parker learns his late girlfriend Gwen Stacy had had two children with Norman Osborn.[62]

 

He joins the superhero team the Avengers in New Avengers #1-2. After their respective homes are destroyed by a deranged, superpowered former high-school classmate, Parker, Watson, and May move into Stark Tower, and Parker begins working as Tony Stark's assistant while again freelancing for The Daily Bugle and continuing his teaching. In the 12-part, 2005 story arc "The Other", Parker undergoes a transformation that evolves his powers. In the comic Civil War #2 (June 2006), part of the company-wide crossover arc of that title, the U.S. government's Superhuman Registration Act leads Spider-Man to reveal his true identity publicly. A growing unease about the Registration Act prompts him to escape with May and Watson and join the anti-registration underground.

 

In issue #537 (Dec. 2006), May is critically wounded by a sniper and enters a coma. Parker, desperate to save her, exhausts all possibilities and makes a pact with the demon Mephisto, who saves May's life in exchange for Parker and Watson agreeing to have their marriage and all memory of it disappear. In this changed reality, Spider-Man's identity is secret once again, and in #545 (Jan. 2008), Watson returns and is cold toward him.

 

That controversial[63] storyline, "One More Day", rolled back much of the fictional continuity at the behest of editor-in-chief Joe Quesada, who said, "Peter being single is an intrinsic part of the very foundation of the world of Spider-Man".[63] It caused unusual public friction between Quesada and writer Straczynski, who "told Joe that I was going to take my name off the last two issues of the [story] arc" but was talked out of doing so.[64] At issue with Straczynski's climax to the arc, Quesada said, was

 

 

 

 

 

Alternate cover art for FF #1, depicting Spider-Man in his new white costume (lower left).

 

...that we didn't receive the story and methodology to the resolution that we were all expecting. What made that very problematic is that we had four writers and artists well underway on [the sequel arc] "Brand New Day" that were expecting and needed "One More Day" to end in the way that we had all agreed it would. ... The fact that we had to ask for the story to move back to its original intent understandably made Joe upset and caused some major delays and page increases in the series. Also, the science that Joe was going to apply to the retcon of the marriage would have made over 30 years of Spider-Man books worthless, because they never would have had happened. ...t would have reset way too many things outside of the Spider-Man titles. We just couldn't go there....[64]

 

In this new continuity, designed to have very limited repercussions throughout the remainder of the Marvel Universe, Parker returns to work at the Daily Bugle, which has been renamed The DB under a new publisher, and in The Amazing Spider-Man #549 (March 2008) we learn that Parker's best friend Harry Osborn has never died.[62] In issue #568 (Oct.2008),[62] Parker switches to work at the alternative press paper The Front Line. Former Daily Bugle publisher J. Jonah Jameson becomes mayor of New York City in #591 (June 2008).[62] Jameson's estranged father, J. Jonah Jameson, Sr., marries May in issue #600 (Sept. 2009).[62]

 

By issue #648 (Jan. 2011), Parker has begun dating NYPD criminologist Carlie Cooper, has obtained a research job at Horizon Labs, and has reconciled with Mary Jane Watson.

 

While continuing to serve with the Avengers, Spider-Man now also works with its sister superhero team, the New Avengers.[volume & issue needed] In the aftermath of the Human Torch's death, Spider-Man is invited to be a member of the Future Foundation alongside the remaining Fantastic Four members at the Human Torch's request in his will, which Spider-Man accepts.[65][66] While operating as a member of the Future Foundation's "First Family", Spider-Man now wears a costume similar to theirs, that is predominantly white with black accents, including a spider insignia that reaches across his chest in similar (but tonally opposite) to his black "symbiote" costume.

 

Other versions

 

 

 

Main article: Alternative versions of Spider-Man

 

Due to Spider-Man being successfully popular in the mainstream comics of the Marvel Universe, publishers have been able to introduce different variations of Spider-Man outside of mainstream comics as well as introducing reimagined stories in many other multiversed spinoffs such as Ultimate Spider-Man, Spider-Man 2099 and Spider-Man: India. Marvel has also made its own parodies of Spider-Man in comics such as Not Brand Echh, which was published in the late 1960s and featured such characters as Peter Pooper alias Spidey-Man,[67] and Peter Porker, the Spectacular Spider-Ham, who appeared in the 1980s. The fictional character has also inspired a number of deratives such as a manga version of Spider-Man drawn by Japanese artist Ryoichi Ikegami as well as Hideshi Hino's The Bug Boy, which has been cited as inspired by Spider-Man.[68] Also the French comic Télé-Junior published strips based on popular TV series. In the late 1970s, the publisher also produced original Spider-Man adventures. Artists included Gérald Forton, who later moved to America and worked for Marvel.[69]

 

Powers and equipment

 

 

 

Main article: Spider-Man's powers and equipment

 

 

 

 

 

Spider-Man's web-shooters, from The Amazing Spider-Man #259. Art by Ron Frenz.

 

A bite from a radioactive spider on a school field trip causes a variety of changes in the body of Peter Parker and gives him superpowers.[70] In the original Lee-Ditko stories, Spider-Man has the ability to cling to walls, superhuman strength, a sixth sense ("spider-sense") that alerts him to danger, perfect balance and equilibrium, as well as superhuman speed and agility. Some of his comic series have him shooting webs from his wrists.[70] Brilliant, Parker excels in applied science, chemistry, and physics. The character was originally conceived by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko as intellectually gifted, but not a genius. However, later writers have depicted the character as a genius.[71] With his talents, he sews his own costume to conceal his identity, and constructs many devices that complement his powers, most notably mechanical web-shooters.[70] This mechanism ejects an advanced adhesive, releasing web-fluid in a variety of configurations, including a single rope-like strand to swing from, a net to bind enemies, a single strand for yanking opponents into objects, strands for whipping foreign objects at enemies, and a simple glob to foul machinery or blind an opponent. He can also weave the web material into simple forms like a shield, a spherical protection or hemispherical barrier, a club, or a hang-glider wing. Other equipment include spider-tracers (spider-shaped adhesive homing beacons keyed to his own spider-sense), a light beacon which can either be used as a flashlight or project a "Spider-Signal" design, and a specially modified camera that can take pictures automatically.

 

Supporting characters

 

 

 

Main article: List of Spider-Man supporting characters

 

After his parents died, Peter Parker was raised by his loving aunt, May Parker, and his uncle and father figure, Ben Parker (usually referred to simply as Aunt May and Uncle Ben). After Uncle Ben is murdered by a burglar, Aunt May is virtually Peter's only family, and she and Peter are very close. Peter's first crush is fellow high-school student Liz Allan, although his first real love is Betty Brant, the secretary to Daily Bugle newspaper publisher J. Jonah Jameson. After their breakup, Parker eventually falls in love with his college girlfriend Gwen Stacy, daughter of New York City Police Department detective captain George Stacy, both of whom are later killed by supervillain enemies of Spider-Man. Mary Jane Watson eventually became Peter's best friend and then his wife. Felicia Hardy, the Black Cat, is a reformed cat burglar who had been Spider-Man's girlfriend and partner at one point.

 

Eugene "Flash" Thompson was originally Parker's high school tormentor, and later a friend. Harry Osborn, son of Norman Osborn, was Peter's best friend in college and has remained so since. Joseph "Robbie" Robertson is the managing editor at the Daily Bugle, and his son, Randy Robertson is a friend and one-time roommate of Parker's.

 

Enemies

 

Main article: List of Spider-Man enemies

 

 

 

 

 

The many villains of Spider-Man. Art by Sean Chen.

 

Writers and artists over many years have managed to establish an exciting and notable rogues gallery of villains to face Spider-Man.[note 6] The three most infamous and dangerous enemies as voted by fans are the Green Goblin, Doctor Octopus, and Venom.[72][73][74] Other characters include the Hobgoblin, Kraven the Hunter, Carnage, the Scorpion, the Sandman, the Lizard, Mysterio, the Vulture, Electro, the Kingpin, Doctor Doom, Rhino, Juggernaut, the Shocker, and the Chameleon. As with Spider-Man, the majority of these villains' powers originate with scientific accidents or the misuse of scientific technology, and they tend to have animal-themed costumes or powers, and many have green costumes. At times these villains have formed groups such as the Sinister Six to oppose Spider-Man. Spider-Man has also had his share of battles with other villains outside of his traditional rogues gallery too, such as Magneto, Bullseye, Kang the Conqueror, Sabretooth, Mystique, The Brotherhood of Mutants, Graviton, and many others.

 

Cultural influence

 

 

 

Comic book writer-editor and historian Paul Kupperberg, in The Creation of Spider-Man, calls the character's superpowers "nothing too original"; what was original was that outside his secret identity, he was a "nerdy high school student".[75]:5 Going against typical superhero fare, Spider-Man included "heavy doses of soap-opera and elements of melodrama." Kupperberg feels that Lee and Ditko had created something new in the world of comics: "the flawed superhero with everyday problems." This idea spawned a "comics revolution."[75]:6 The insecurity and anxieties in Marvel's early 1960s comic books such as The Amazing Spider-Man, The Incredible Hulk, and X-Men ushered in a new type of superhero, very different from the certain and all-powerful superheroes before them, and changed the public's perception of them.[76] Spider-Man has become one of the most recognizable fictional characters in the world, and has been used to sell toys, games, cereal, candy, soap, and many other products.[77]

 

Spider-Man has become Marvel's flagship character, and has often been used as the company mascot. When Marvel became the first comic book company to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1991, the Wall Street Journal announced "Spider-Man is coming to Wall Street"; the event was in turn promoted with an actor in a Spider-Man costume accompanying Stan Lee to the Stock Exchange.[1]:254 Since 1962, hundreds of millions of comics featuring the character have been sold around the world.[78]

 

Spider-Man joined the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade from 1987 to 1998 as one of the balloon floats,[79] designed by John Romita Sr.,[80] one of the character's signature artists. A new, different Spider-Man balloon float is scheduled to appear from at least 2009 to 2011.[79]

 

In 1981, skyscraper-safety activist Dan Goodwin, wearing a Spider-Man suit, scaled the Sears Tower in Chicago, Illinois, the Renaissance Tower in Dallas, Texas, and the John Hancock Center in Chicago, Illinois.[81]

 

When Marvel wanted to issue a story dealing with the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the company chose the December 2001 issue of The Amazing Spider-Man.[82] In 2006, Spider-Man garnered major media coverage with the revelation of the character's secret identity,[83] an event detailed in a full page story in the New York Post before the issue containing the story was even released.[84]

 

In 2008, Marvel announced plans to release a series of educational comics the following year in partnership with the United Nations, depicting Spider-Man alongside UN Peacekeeping Forces to highlight UN peacekeeping missions.[85] A BusinessWeek article listed Spider-Man as one of the top ten most intelligent fictional characters in American comics.[86]

 

Spider-Man was named Empire magazine's fifth-greatest comic book character,[87] and Fandomania.com rated him as #7 on their 100 Greatest Fictional Characters list.[88] In 2006, IGN hosted an "Ultimate Marvel Battle" feature to decide which Marvel character - hero or villain - could win against one another in a tournament dependent upon votes, and Spider-Man was deemed champion after defeating Ghost Rider, Captain America, The Hulk, Silver Surfer, Thor and Magneto in the finals.[89]

 

In other media

 

 

 

Main article: Spider-Man in other media

 

Spider-Man has appeared in comics, cartoons, movies, coloring books, novels, records, and children's books.[77] On television, he appeared as the main character in the animated series Spider-Man, which aired from 1967–1970 on ABC,[90] the live-action series The Amazing Spider-Man (1978–1979), starring Nicholas Hammond, the syndicated cartoon series Spider-Man (1981–1982), Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends (1981–1983), Spider-Man: The Animated Series (1994–1998), Spider-Man Unlimited (1999–2000), Spider-Man: The New Animated Series (2003), and The Spectacular Spider-Man (2008–2009). A new animated series, Ultimate Spider-Man, based on the alternate-universe comic-book series Ultimate Spider-Man is scheduled to air on Disney XD in Fall 2011.[91]

 

A tokusatsu show featuring Spider-Man was produced by Toei and aired in Japan. It is commonly referred to by its Japanese pronunciation "Supaidā-Man".[92] Spider-Man also appeared in other print forms besides the comics, including novels, children's books, and the daily newspaper comic strip The Amazing Spider-Man, which debuted in January 1977, with the earliest installments written by Stan Lee and drawn by John Romita, Sr.[93] Spider-Man has been adapted to other media including games, toys, collectibles, and miscellaneous memorabilia, and has appeared as the main character in numerous computer and video games on over 15 gaming platforms.

 

Spider-Man was also the subject of a trilogy of live-action films directed by Sam Raimi and starring actor Tobey Maguire as the title superhero. The original Spider-Man film was released in 2002, its first sequel, Spider-Man 2, was released in 2004, and the next sequel, Spider-Man 3, was released in 2007. Spider-Man 4 was originally scheduled to be released in 2011, however Sony decided the series would be rebooted and a new director and cast would be introduced. The reboot is scheduled to be released in summer 2012.[94][95][96] It was announced on February 10, 2010 that the new film will begin production in December directed by Marc Webb from a screenplay by James Vanderbilt. Avi Arad and Laura Ziskin will produce the 3-D film to be released July 3, 2012.[97] Andrew Garfield will play the new Peter Parker.[98]

 

A Broadway musical, Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark, began previews on November 14, 2010 at the Foxwoods Theatre on Broadway, with the official opening night scheduled for March 15, 2011.[99][100] The score and lyrics were written by Bono and The Edge of the rock group U2, with a book by Julie Taymor and Glen Berger.[101] Spider-Man is most expensive musical in Broadway history, costing an estimated $65 million.[102] In addition, the show's unusually high running costs are reported to be about $1 million per week.[103]

 

Awards and honors

 

 

 

From the character's inception, Spider-Man stories have won numerous awards, including:

 

1962 Alley Award: Best Short Story—"Origin of Spider-Man" by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko, Amazing Fantasy #15

 

1963 Alley Award: Best Comic: Adventure Hero title—The Amazing Spider-Man

 

1963 Alley Award: Top Hero—Spider-Man

 

1964 Alley Award: Best Adventure Hero Comic Book—The Amazing Spider-Man

 

1964 Alley Award: Best Giant Comic - The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #1

 

1964 Alley Award: Best Hero—Spider-Man

 

1965 Alley Award: Best Adventure Hero Comic Book—The Amazing Spider-Man

 

1965 Alley Award: Best Hero—Spider-Man

 

1966 Alley Award: Best Comic Magazine: Adventure Book with the Main Character in the Title—The Amazing Spider-Man

 

1966 Alley Award: Best Full-Length Story - "How Green was My Goblin", by Stan Lee & John Romita, Sr., The Amazing Spider-Man #39

 

1967 Alley Award: Best Comic Magazine: Adventure Book with the Main Character in the Title—The Amazing Spider-Man

 

1967 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Costumed or Powered Hero—Spider-Man

 

1967 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Male Normal Supporting Character—J. Jonah Jameson, The Amazing Spider-Man

 

1967 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Female Normal Supporting Character—Mary Jane Watson, The Amazing Spider-Man

 

1968 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Adventure Hero Strip—The Amazing Spider-Man

 

1968 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Supporting Character - J. Jonah Jameson, The Amazing Spider-Man

 

1969 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Adventure Hero Strip—The Amazing Spider-Man

 

1997 Eisner Award: Best Artist/Penciller/Inker or Penciller/Inker Team—1997 Al Williamson, Best Inker: Untold Tales of Spider-Man #17-18

 

2002 Eisner Award: Best Serialized Story—The Amazing Spider-Man vol. 2, #30–35: "Coming Home", by J. Michael Straczynski, John Romita, Jr., and Scott Hanna

 

No date: Empire magazine's fifth-greatest comic book character.[87]

 

No date: Spider-Man was the #1 superhero on Bravo's Ultimate Super Heroes, Vixens, and Villains show.[104]

 

See also

 

 

 

     United States portal

 

     Comics portal

 

     Speculative fiction portal

 

     Superhero fiction portal

 

Bibliography of Spider-Man titles

 

Selected story arcs

 

"Maximum Carnage"

 

"Identity Crisis"

 

"The Final Chapter"

 

"One More Day"

 

"Brand New Day"

 

"New Ways to Die"

 

"American Son"

 

"The Gauntlet and Grim Hunt"

 

"One Moment in Time"

 

 

 

Notes

 

 

 

^ Lee, Stan; Mair, George (2002). Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee. Fireside. ISBN 0-684-87305-2. "He goes further in his biography, claiming that even while pitching the concept to publisher Martin Goodman, "I can't remember if that was literally true or not, but I thought it would lend a big color to my pitch.""

 

^ Detroit Free Press interview with Stan Lee, quoted in The Steve Ditko Reader by Greg Theakston (Pure Imagination, Brooklyn, NY; ISBN 1-56685-011-8), p. 12 (unnumbered). "He gave me 1,000 reasons why Spider-Man would never work. Nobody likes spiders; it sounds too much like Superman; and how could a teenager be a superhero? Then I told him I wanted the character to be a very human guy, someone who makes mistakes, who worries, who gets acne, has trouble with his girlfriend, things like that. [Goodman replied,] 'He's a hero! He's not an average man!' I said, 'No, we make him an average man who happens to have super powers, that's what will make him good.' He told me I was crazy".

 

^ Ditko, Steve (2000). Roy Thomas. ed. Alter Ego: The Comic Book Artist Collection. TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 1893905063. "'Stan said a new Marvel hero would be introduced in #15 [of what became titled Amazing Fantasy]. He would be called Spider-Man. Jack would do the penciling and I was to ink the character.' At this point still, 'Stan said Spider-Man would be a teenager with a magic ring which could transform him into an adult hero -- Spider-Man. I said it sounded like the Fly, which Joe Simon had done for Archie Comics. Stan called Jack about it but I don't know what was discussed. I never talked to Jack about Spider-Man... Later, at some point, I was given the job of drawing Spider-Man'".

 

^ Jack Kirby in "Shop Talk: Jack Kirby", Will Eisner's Spirit Magazine #39 (February 1982): "Spider-Man was discussed between Joe Simon and myself. It was the last thing Joe and I had discussed. We had a strip called 'The Silver Spider.' The Silver Spider was going into a magazine called Black Magic. Black Magic folded with Crestwood (Simon & Kirby's 1950s comics company) and we were left with the script. I believe I said this could become a thing called Spider-Man, see, a superhero character. I had a lot of faith in the superhero character that they could be brought back... and I said Spider-Man would be a fine character to start with. But Joe had already moved on. So the idea was already there when I talked to Stan".

 

^ Simon, Joe, with Jim Simon. The Comic Book Makers (Crestwood/II, 1990) ISBN 1-887591-35-4. "There were a few holes in Jack's never-dependable memory. For instance, there was no Black Magic involved at all. ... Jack brought in the Spider-Man logo that I had loaned to him before we changed the name to The Silver Spider. Kirby laid out the story to Lee about the kid who finds a ring in a spiderweb, gets his powers from the ring, and goes forth to fight crime armed with The Silver Spider's old web-spinning pistol. Stan Lee said, 'Perfect, just what I want.' After obtaining permission from publisher Martin Goodman, Lee told Kirby to pencil-up an origin story. Kirby... using parts of an old rejected superhero named Night Fighter... revamped the old Silver Spider script, including revisions suggested by Lee. But when Kirby showed Lee the sample pages, it was Lee's turn to gripe. He had been expecting a skinny young kid who is transformed into a skinny young kid with spider powers. Kirby had him turn into... Captain America with cobwebs. He turned Spider-Man over to Steve Ditko, who... ignored Kirby's pages, tossed the character's magic ring, web-pistol and goggles... and completely redesigned Spider-Man's costume and equipment. In this life, he became high-school student Peter Parker, who gets his spider powers after being bitten by a radioactive spider. ... Lastly, the Spider-Man logo was redone and a dashing hyphen added".

 

^ Mondello, Salvatore (Mar 2004). "Spider-Man: Superhero in the Liberal Tradition". The Journal of Popular Culture X (1): 232–238. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1976.1001_232.x. "a teenage superhero and middle-aged supervillains—an impressive rogues' gallery which includes such memorable knaves and grotesques as the Vulture,".

 

References

 

 

 

^ a b c d e f g h i j Wright, Bradford W. (2001). Comic Book Nation. Johns Hopkins Press : Baltimore. ISBN 0801874505.

 

^ "Why Spider-Man is popular.". Retrieved 18 November 2010.

 

^ "It's Official! Andrew Garfield to Play Spider-Man!". Comingsoon.net. 2010-07-02. Retrieved 2010-10-09.

 

^ "Complete Cast Announced for Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark". Broadway.com. 2010-08-16. Retrieved 2010-10-09.

 

^ "IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes". Retrieved 2011-05-09.

 

^ a b c DeFalco, Tom; Lee, Stan (2001). O'Neill, Cynthia. ed. Spider-Man: The Ultimate Guide. New York: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 078947946X.

 

^ Lee, Stan; Mair, George (2002). Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee. Fireside. ISBN 0-684-87305-2.

 

^ a b Daniels, Les (1991). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-3821-9.

 

^ a b Theakston, Greg (2002). The Steve Ditko Reader. Brooklyn, NY: Pure Imagination. ISBN 1-56685-011-8.

 

^ a b Ditko, Steve (2000). Roy Thomas. ed. Alter Ego: The Comic Book Artist Collection. TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 1893905063.

 

^ Ditko, Steve; Martin, Gary (1965). "Steve Ditko - A Portrait of the Master". Comic Fan #2, Summer 1965. Retrieved 2008-04-03.[dead link]

 

^ "Spider-Man: The Birth of an Icon". thehotspotonline.com. Retrieved 2010-04-10.

 

^ a b Evanier, Mark; Gaiman, Neil (2008). Kirby: King of Comics. Abrams. ISBN 081099447X.

 

^ Bell, Blake. Strange and Stranger: The World of Steve Ditko (2008). Fantagraphic Books.p.54-57.

 

^ Skelly, Tim. "Interview II: 'I created an army of characters, and now my connection to them is lost.'" (Initially broadcast over WNUR-FM on "The Great Electric Bird," May 14, 1971. Transcribed and published in The Nostalgia Journal #27.) Reprinted in The Comics Journal Library Volume One: Jack Kirby, George, Milo ed. May, 2002, Fantagraphics Books. p. 16

 

^ Ross, Jonathon. In Search of Steve Ditko, BBC 4, September 16, 2007.

 

^ Nickerson, Al. "Who Really Created Spider-Man?" P.I.C. News, 5 February 2009. Accessed 2009-02-17. Archived 2009-02-17.

 

^ "Library of Congress Receives Original Drawings for the First Spider-Man Story, 'Amazing Fantasy' #15", Library of Congress press release, April 30, 2008. WebCitation archive. Additionally: Raymond, Matt. "Library of Congress Acquires Spider-Man's 'Birth Certificate'", Library of Congress Blog, April 30, 2008. WebCitation archive.

 

^ Saffel, Steve. Spider-Man the Icon: The Life and Times of a Pop Culture Phenomenon (Titan Books, 2007) ISBN 978-1-84576-324-4, "A Not-So-Spectacular Experiment", p. 31

 

^ Sanderson, Peter. Marvel Universe: The Complete Encyclopedia of Marvel's Greatest Characters (Harry N. Abrams, New York, 1998) ISBN 0-8109-8171-8, p. 75

 

^ a b Kempton, Sally, "Spiderman's [sic] Dilemma: Super-Anti-Hero in Forest Hills", The Village Voice, April 1, 1965

 

^ Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (a). Amazing Fantasy 15 (August 1962), New York, NY: Marvel Comics

 

^ a b Daniels, Les. Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics (Harry N. Abrams, New York, 1991) ISBN 0-8109-3821-9, p. 95

 

^ Saffel, Steve. Spider-Man the Icon: The Life and Times of a Pop Culture Phenomenon (Titan Books, 2007) ISBN 978-1-84576-324-4, p. 21

 

^ Daniels, p. 96

 

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Amazing Spider-Man, The (Marvel, 1963 Series) at the Grand Comics Database

 

^ Lee, Stan, Origins of Marvel Comics (Simon and Schuster/Fireside Books, 1974) p. 137

 

^ Saffel, p. 51

 

^ Saffel, pp. 30, 51

 

^ Sanderson, Peter (2007). The Marvel Comics Guide to New York City. New York City: Pocket Books. pp. 30–33. ISBN 1-41653-141-6.

 

^ Saunders, Catherine, Heather Scott, Julia March, Alastair Dougall, eds. Marvel Chronicle (DK Publishing, New York City, 2008) ISBN 978-0-7566-4123-8. p. 117

 

^ Saffel, pp. 27-28

 

^ Saffel, p. 27

 

^ Thomas, Roy. Stan Lee's Amazing Marvel Universe (Sterling Publishing, New York City, 2006). ISBN 978-1-4027-4225-5. p. 23

 

^ Saunders, et al, Marvel Chronicle, p. 119

 

^ Saffel, p. 60

 

^ Saffel, p. 65, states, "In the battle that followed atop the Brooklyn Bridge (or was it the George Washington Bridge?)...." On page 66, Saffel reprints the panel of The Amazing Spider-Man #121, page 18, in which Spider-Man exclaims, "The George Washington Bridge! It figures Osborn would pick something named after his favorite president. He's got the same sort of hangup for dollar bills!" Saffel states, "The span portrayed...is the GW's more famous cousin, the Brooklyn Bridge. ... To address the contradiction in future reprints of the tale, though, Spider-Man's dialogue was altered so that he's referring to the Brooklyn Bridge. But the original snafu remains as one of the more visible errors in the history of comics."

 

^ Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 84, notes, "[W]hile the script described the site of Gwen's demise as the George Washington Bridge, the art depicted the Brooklyn Bridge, and there is still no agreement as to where it actually took place."

 

^ Saffel, p. 65

 

^ Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 85

 

^ Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 83

 

^ Saunders, et al. Marvel Chronicle, p. 196

 

^ Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 86; Saffel, p. 133

 

^ Marvel Team-Up #141 at the Grand Comics Database

 

^ Spectacular Spider-Man, The #90 at the Grand Comics Database

 

^ Marvel Super-Heroes Secret Wars #8 at the Grand Comics Database

 

^ Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 88

 

^ Web of Spider-Man #1 at the Grand Comics Database

 

^ "Characters : Spider-Man : Costume : Black". SpiderFan.org, n.d. WebCitation archive.

 

^ Wallace, Dave. Spider-Man: The Death of Jean DeWolff (review) of trade paperback collection, Comics Bulletin, April 25, 2007. WebCitation archive.

 

^ Leupp, Thomas. "Behind the Mask: The Story of Spider-Man's Black Costume", ReelzChannel.com, 2007, n.d. WebCitation archive.

 

^ a b Saffel, p. 124

 

^ Ferraro, Ron. "Spidey Classics: Amazing Spider-Man #304" (review), SpiderManReviews.com, February 2010. WebCitation archive.

 

^ Goletz, Andrew, and Glenn Greenberg.""Life of Reilly", 35-part series, GreyHaven Magazine, 2003, n.d.". NewComicsReviews.com. Archived from the original on 1996-01-01.

 

^ Saunders, et al., Marvel Chronicle, p. 271

 

^ a b Saunders, et al., Chronicle, p. 281

 

^ Spider-Man (Marvel, 1990 Series) at the Grand Comics Database: "Cover title beginning with issue #75 is Peter Parker, Spider-Man".

 

^ Saunders, et al. Chronicle, p. 273

 

^ a b c Amazing Spider-Man, The, Marvel, 1999 Series (The Amazing Spider-Man vol. 2) at the Grand Comics Database

 

^ a b Ruby, Sam. "Mary Jane Watson", SamRuby.com (fan site). WebCitation archive.

 

^ Blumberg, Arnold T. "Face it Tiger - A Brief Look at the Life of Mary Jane Watson-Parker, Part 2", Mania.com, July 17, 2002. WebCitation archive.

 

^ a b c d e Amazing Spider-Man, The, Marvel, 2003 Series (renumbering to return to original numbering from 1963) at the Grand Comics Database

 

^ a b Weiland, Jonah. storyline "The 'One More Day' Interviews with Joe Quesada, Pt. 1 of 5", Newsarama, December 28, 2007. WebCitation archive.

 

^ a b Weiland, Jonah. "The 'One More Day' Interviews with Joe Quesada, Pt. 2 of 5", Newsarama, December 31, 2007. WebCitation archive.

 

^ Amazing Spider-Man #657

 

^ FF #1 (2011)

 

^ "examples of "Not Brand Echh" comics". Dialbforblog.com. Retrieved 2010-04-10.

 

^ McCarthy, Helen, 500 Manga Heroes and Villains (Barron's Educational Series, 2006), ISBN 978-0-7641-3201-8,[page needed]

 

^ Lambiek comic shop and studio in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. "Lambiek Comiclopedia: Gérald Forton". Lambiek.net. Retrieved 2010-04-10.

 

^ a b c Gresh, Lois H., and Robert Weinberg. "The Science of Superheroes" (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002) ISBN 0-471-02460-0 (preview)

 

^ Kiefer, Kit; Couper-Smartt, Jonathan (2003). Marvel Encyclopedia Volume 4: Spider-Man. New York: Marvel Comics. ISBN 0-785-11304-5.

 

^ Goldstein, Hilary (2006-02-01). "Spider-Man villain poll". IGN. Retrieved 2006-10-01.

 

^ "The 20 Greatest Spider-Man Villains". Blogzarro.com. Retrieved 2010-03-20.

 

^ "Fans : Top Ten : Top Ten Greatest Spider-Man Villains". SpiderFan.org. 2003-09-01. Retrieved 2010-03-20.

 

^ a b Kupperberg, Paul (2007). The Creation of Spider-Man. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 1404207635.

 

^ Fleming, James R. (2006). "Review of Superman on the Couch: What Superheroes Really Tell Us about Ourselves and Our Society. By Danny Fingeroth". ImageText (University of Florida). ISSN 1549-6732. Retrieved Fleming.

 

^ a b Knowles, Christopher (2007). Our Gods Wear Spandex. illustrated by Joseph Michael Linsner. Weiser. p. 139.

 

^ "Spider-Man Weaving a spell". Screen India. 2002. Retrieved 2009-02-13.

 

^ a b "Spider-Man Returning to Macy's Thanksgiving Day Paradede", Associated Press via WCBS (AM), 17 August 2009

 

^ Spurlock, J. David, and John Romita. John Romita Sketchbook. (Vanguard Productions: Lebanon, N.J. 2002) ISBN 1-887591-27-3, p. 45: Romita: "I designed the Spider-Man balloon float. When we went to Macy's to talk about it, Manny Bass was there. He's the genius who creates all these balloon floats. I gave him the sketches and he turned them into reality".

 

^ "Skyscraperman". Retrieved 2010-10-06.

 

^ Yarbrough, Beau (2001-09-24). "Marvel to Take on World Trade Center Attack in "Amazing Spider-Man"". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 2008-04-28.

 

^ Staff (2006-06-15). "Spider-Man Removes Mask at Last". BBC. Retrieved 2006-09-29.

 

^ Brady, Matt (2006-06-14). "New York Post Spoils Civil War #2". Newsarama. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-02.

 

^ Lane, Thomas (2008-01-04). "Can Spider-Man help UN beat evil?". BBC. Retrieved 2008-04-29.

 

^ Pisani, Joseph (June 1, 2006). "The Smartest Superheroes". Business Week Online. Retrieved 2007-11-25.

 

^ a b "The 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters". Empire Online. Retrieved 2009-02-08.

 

^ "The 100 Greatest Fictional Characters". Fandomania. Retrieved September 23, 2010.

 

^ Goldstein, Hilary (2010-07-07). "The Ultimate Marvel Battle - Comics Feature at IGN". Comics.ign.com. Retrieved 2010-10-09.

 

^ "Spider-Man (1967)". UGO Networks. Archived from the original on 2008-04-24. Retrieved 2009-02-13.

 

^ "Ultimate Spider-Man". Retrieved 18 November 2010.

 

^ "Japanese Spider-Man". Retrieved 18 November 2010.

 

^ "John Romita Interview". www.keefestudios.com. Retrieved 2009-02-08.

 

^ "EXCLUSIVE: 'Spider-Man 4' Scrapped; Sam Rami & Tobey Maguire & Cast Out; Franchise Reboot for 2012". Deadline.com. January 11, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2010.

 

^ ""Spider-Man" Film Gets Reboot; Sam Raimi, Tobey Maguire Out". Zap2It.com. January 11, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2010.

 

^ "Maguire, Raimi out of 'Spider-Man' franchise". Associated Press. Yahoo! Movies. January 11, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2010.[dead link]

 

^ DiOrio, Carl (2010-02-10). "'Spider-Man' reboot will be in 3D". Hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved 2010-03-20.[dead link]

 

^ Leins, Jeff (2010-07-01). "Andrew Garfield is the New Spider-Man". NewsinFilm.com. Retrieved 2010-07-01.

 

^ Lustig, Jay. "Spider-Man: Turn off the Dark". New Jersey On-Line. January 18, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2011.

 

^ Gans, Andrew. "Reeve Carney, Jennifer Damiano, Patrick Page to Star in Spider-Man; Performances Begin in November". Playbill.com, August 10, 2010

 

^ "SpidermanBroadway.Marvel.com". Spidermanonbroadway.marvel.com. Retrieved 2010-04-10.

 

^ Hetrick, Adam. "Troubled Spider-Man Turn Off the Dark Delays Broadway Opening Again". Playbill.com. January 13, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2011.

 

^ "Could Spider-Man the Musical be the 'biggest disaster in Broadway history'?". The Week. August 13, 2010 (updated November 4, 2010).

 

^ "Ultimate Super Heroes, Vixens, and Villains Episode Guide 2005 - Ultimate Super Villains". TVGuide.com. Retrieved 2010-10-09.

 

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Hulk (comics)

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

"The Hulk" redirects here. For other uses, see Hulk (disambiguation).

 

The Hulk

 

 

 

Promotional art for The Incredible Hulk vol. 3, #92 (April 2006)

 

by Bryan Hitch.

 

Publication information

 

Publisher     Marvel Comics

 

First appearance     The Incredible Hulk #1 (May 1962)

 

Created by     Stan Lee

 

Jack Kirby

 

In-story information

 

Alter ego     Robert Bruce Banner

 

Species     Human

 

Place of origin     Earth

 

Team affiliations     Warbound

 

Avengers

 

Defenders

 

Pantheon

 

Hulkbusters

 

Horsemen of Apocalypse

 

The Order

 

New Fantastic Four

 

Notable aliases     War, Annihilator, Captain Universe, Joe Fixit, Mr. Fixit, Mechano, Professor, War, Bruce Bancroft, David Banner, David Bixby, Bob Danner, Bruce Jones, Bruce Roberts, David Blaine, the Green Scar, Green Goliath, Jade Giant, Bob, World-breaker, Sakaarson

 

Abilities     Vast superhuman strength, stamina, and durability

 

Enhanced jumping ability

 

Regenerative healing factor

 

Genius-level intellect in later incarnations

 

The Hulk is a fictional character, a superhero in the Marvel Comics Universe. Created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in The Incredible Hulk #1 (May 1962).

 

The Hulk is cast as the emotional and impulsive alter ego of the withdrawn and reserved physicist Dr. Bruce Banner. The Hulk appears shortly after Banner is accidentally exposed to the blast of a test detonation of a gamma bomb he invented. Subsequently, Banner will involuntarily transform into the Hulk, depicted as a giant, raging, humanoid monster, leading to extreme complications in Banner's life. Lee said the Hulk's creation was inspired by a combination of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and Frankenstein.[1]

 

Although the Hulk's coloration has varied throughout the character's publication history, the most consistent shade is green. As the Hulk, Banner is capable of significant feats of strength, which increases in direct proportion to the character's anger. As the character himself puts it, "The madder Hulk gets, the stronger Hulk gets!" Strong emotions such as anger, terror and grief are also triggers for forcing Banner's transformation into the Hulk. A common storyline is the pursuit of both Banner and the Hulk by the U.S. authorities, due to the destruction he causes.

 

The character has since been depicted in various other media, most notably by Lou Ferrigno in a live action television series, six television movies, and an animated series; through the use of CGI in Hulk (2003) and The Incredible Hulk (2008), as well as in three animated series and various video games.

 

In 2008, the hobbyist magazine Wizard named the Hulk the seventh-greatest Marvel Comics character.[2] Empire Magazine named him the 14th-greatest comic book character, and the fifth-greatest Marvel character.[3]

 

Contents [hide]

 

1 Publication history

 

1.1 Concept and creation

 

1.2 Debut and first series

 

1.3 Tales to Astonish

 

1.4 1970s

 

1.5 1980s and 1990s

 

1.6 Relaunch

 

1.7 Planet Hulk and World War Hulk

 

1.8 Retitling and new Hulk series

 

2 Characterization

 

2.1 Bruce Banner

 

2.2 The Hulk

 

3 Incarnations

 

4 Powers, appearance, and abilities

 

5 Related characters

 

6 Family

 

7 Other versions

 

8 In other media

 

9 Collected editions

 

10 Earlier characters called "The Hulk"

 

11 References

 

12 External links

 

[edit]Publication history

 

 

 

[edit]Concept and creation

 

The Hulk first appeared in The Incredible Hulk #1 (May 1962), written by writer-editor Stan Lee, and penciller and co-plotter Jack Kirby, and inked by Paul Reinman. Lee cites influence from Frankenstein[4] and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde in the Hulk's creation:

 

"I combined Jekyll and Hyde with Frankenstein," he explains, "and I got myself the monster I wanted, who was really good, but nobody knew it. He was also somebody who could change from a normal man into a monster, and lo, a legend was born."[5] Lee remembers, "I had always loved the old movie Frankenstein. And it seemed to me that the monster, played by Boris Karloff, wasn't really a bad guy. He was the good guy. He didn't want to hurt anybody. It's just those idiots with torches kept running up and down the mountains, chasing him and getting him angry. And I thought, 'Wouldn't it be fun to create a monster and make him the good guy?'[5]

 

Lee also compared Hulk to the Golem of Jewish myth.[4] In The Science of Superheroes, Gresh and Weinberg see the Hulk as a reaction to the Cold War[6] and the threat of nuclear attack, an interpretation shared by Weinstein in Up, Up and Oy Vey.[4] Kaplan calls Hulk "schizophrenic."[7] Jack Kirby has also commented upon his influences in drawing the character, recalling as inspiration the tale of a mother who rescues her child who is trapped beneath a car.[8]

 

[edit]Debut and first series

 

 

 

 

 

The Incredible Hulk #1 (May 1962). Cover art by Jack Kirby and Paul Reinman.

 

In the debut, Lee chose grey for the Hulk because he wanted a color that did not suggest any particular ethnic group.[9] Colorist Stan Goldberg, however, had problems with the grey coloring, resulting in different shades of grey, and even green, in the issue. After seeing the first published issue, Lee chose to change the skin color to green.[10] Green was used in retellings of the origin, with even reprints of the original story being recolored for the next two decades, until The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #302 (December 1984) reintroduced the grey Hulk in flashbacks set close to the origin story. Since then, reprints of the first issue have displayed the original grey coloring, with the fictional canon specifying that the Hulk's skin had initially been grey.

 

The original series was canceled with issue #6 (March 1963). Lee had written each story, with Kirby penciling the first five issues and Steve Ditko penciling and inking the sixth. The character immediately guest-starred in The Fantastic Four #12 (March 1963), and months later became a founding member of the superhero team the Avengers, appearing in the first two issues of the team's eponymous series (Sept. & Nov. 1963), and returning as an antagonist in issues #3 and #5 (Jan.–May 1964). He then guest-starred in Fantastic Four #25-26 (April–May 1964), which revealed his first name, Robert, and The Amazing Spider-Man #14 (July 1964).

 

Around this time, co-creator Kirby received a letter from a college dormitory stating the Hulk had been chosen as its official mascot.[4] Kirby and Lee realized their character had found an audience in college-age readers.

 

[edit]Tales to Astonish

 

 

 

 

 

Tales to Astonish #60 (Oct. 1964). Cover art by Jack Kirby and Sol Brodsky.

 

A year and a half after the series was canceled, the Hulk became one of two features in Tales to Astonish, beginning in issue #60 (Oct. 1964). In the previous issue, he had appeared as an antagonist for Giant-Man, whose feature under various superhero guises had run in the title since issue #35. This phase also introduced the concept of Banner's transformations being caused by extreme emotional stress, which would become central to the character's status as an iconic figure of runaway emotion. This new Hulk feature was initially scripted by writer-editor Lee and illustrated by the team of penciller Steve Ditko and inker George Roussos. Other artists later in this run included Jack Kirby from #68-84 (June 1965 – Oct. 1966), doing full pencils or, more often, layouts for other artists; Gil Kane, credited as "Scott Edwards", in #76 (Feb. 1966), his first Marvel Comics work; Bill Everett inking Kirby in #78-84 (April–Oct. 1966); and John Buscema. Marie Severin finished out the Hulk's run in Tales to Astonish. Beginning with issue #102 (April 1968) the book was retitled The Incredible Hulk, and ran until March 1999, when Marvel canceled the series and restarted the title with a new issue #1. The Tales to Astonish run introduced the supervillains the Leader,[1] who would become the Hulk's archnemesis, and the Abomination, another gamma-irradiated being.[1] In issue #77 (March 1966), Bruce Banner's and the Hulk's dual identity became publicly known, thus making Banner often a wanted fugitive from the authorities.

 

[edit]1970s

 

The Incredible Hulk was published through the 1970s, and the character also made guest appearances in other titles. Writers introduced Banner’s cousin Jennifer Walters, the She-Hulk, in a title of her own. In the first issue of the She-Hulk comic, Banner gave some of his blood to Walters in a transfusion, and the gamma radiation affected her, but she maintained most of her intellect. She later appeared in the Hulk comic proper, as well as other Marvel titles. Banner’s guilt about causing her change became another part of his character, although Jennifer grew to prefer her Hulk state.

 

Writers changed numerous times during the decade. At times, the creative staff included Archie Goodwin, Chris Claremont, and Tony Isabella, Len Wein handled many of the stories through the 1970s, working first with Herb Trimpe, then, in 1975, with Sal Buscema, who was the regular artist for ten years. Harlan Ellison plotted a story, scripted by Roy Thomas, for issue #140 (June 1971), "The Brute that Shouted Love at the Heart of the Atom". Issues #180-181 (Oct.-Nov. 1974) introduced the character Wolverine, who would go on to become one of Marvel Comics' most popular.

 

In 1977, Marvel (under its Curtis Magazines imprint) launched a second title, The Rampaging Hulk, a black-and-white comics magazine.[1] Originally, the series was conceived as a flashback series, set between the end of his original, short-lived solo title and the beginning of his feature in Tales to Astonish.[11] After nine issues, the magazine was retitled The Hulk! and printed in full color. Near the end of the magazine's run, it went back to black-and-white.[12] Back-up features included Bloodstone, Man-Thing, and Shanna the She-Devil during the Rampaging Hulk issues, and later Moon Knight and Dominic Fortune. Ultimately, the stories from both incarnations of the magazine were quietly retconned as "movies" based upon the Hulk for alien audiences.[citation needed]

 

[edit]1980s and 1990s

 

Following Roger Stern, Bill Mantlo took over the writing with issue #245 (March 1980). His "Crossroads of Eternity" stories, which ran through issues #300-313 (Oct. 1984 – Nov. 1985), explored the idea that Banner had suffered child abuse. Greg Pak, a later writer on The Incredible Hulk (vol. 2), called Mantlo's "Crossroads" stories one of his biggest influences on approaching the character.[13] After five years, Mantlo and artist Mike Mignola left the title for Alpha Flight,[14] and Alpha Flight writer John Byrne took over the series, followed briefly by Al Milgrom, before new regular writer Peter David took over.

 

David became the writer of the series with issue #331 (May 1987), marking the start of a 12-year tenure. David's run altered Banner's pre-Hulk characterization and the nature of the relationship between Banner and the Hulk. David returned to the Stern and Mantlo abuse storyline, expanding the damage caused, and depicting Banner as suffering dissociative identity disorder (DID). David's stories showed that Banner had serious mental problems long before he became the Hulk. David revamped the personality significantly, giving the grey Hulk the alias "Joe Fixit," and setting him up as a morally ambiguous Vegas enforcer and tough guy. David worked with numerous artists over his run on the series, including Dale Keown, Todd McFarlane, Sam Kieth, Gary Frank, Liam Sharp, Terry Dodson, Mike Deodato, George Pérez, and Adam Kubert.[1]

 

In issue #377 (Jan. 1991), David revamped the Hulk again, using a storyline involving hypnosis to have the splintered personalities of Banner and Hulk synthesize into a new Hulk, who has the vast power of the Savage Hulk, the cunning of the grey Hulk, and the intelligence of Bruce Banner.

 

In the 1993 Future Imperfect miniseries, writer David and penciller George Pérez introduced readers to the Hulk of a dystopian future. Calling himself the Maestro, the Hulk rules over a world where most of the heroes have been killed, and only Rick Jones and a small band of rebels fight against the Maestro’s rule. Although the Maestro seemed to be destroyed by the end, he returned in The Incredible Hulk #460 (Jan. 1998), also written by David.

 

In 1998, David followed editor Bobbie Chase's suggestion to kill Betty Ross. In the introduction to the Hulk trade paperback Beauty and the Behemoth, David said that his wife had recently left him, providing inspiration for the storyline. Marvel executives used Ross' death as an opportunity to push the idea of bringing back the Savage Hulk. David disagreed, leading to his parting ways with Marvel.[15] His last issue of Hulk was #467 (Aug. 1998), his 137th.

 

Also in 1998, Marvel relaunched The Rampaging Hulk as a standard comic book rather than as a comics magazine.

 

[edit]Relaunch

 

Following David's departure, Joe Casey took over as writer until the series' relaunch after issue #474 (March 1999). Hulk vol. 2[16] began immediately the following month, scripted by John Byrne and penciled by Ron Garney. Byrne supported the editorial decision to push for the return of the "savage" Hulk, but his work on the book was negatively received. In particular, the 1999 Hulk Annual (which retconned the Skrulls as being responsible for the Gamma Bomb explosion that turned Banner into Hulk) were widely reviled and mocked in the pages of Peter David's Captain Marvel series, which was being published at the same time as Byrne's Hulk run. Byrne would ultimately leave as writers decided to retool the series to appeal to fans who wanted a smarter and less childlike Hulk.[17] Erik Larsen and Jerry Ordway briefly filled scripting duties in his place, and the title returned to The Incredible Hulk (vol. 3)[18] with the arrival of Paul Jenkins in issue #12 (March 2000).

 

Jenkins wrote a story arc in which Banner and the three Hulks (Savage Hulk, grey Hulk, and the Merged Hulk, now considered a separate personality and referred to as the Professor) are able to mentally interact with one another, each personality taking over the shared body. During this, the four personalities (including Banner) confront yet another submerged Hulk, a sadistic Hulk intent on attacking the world for revenge.[19]

 

Bruce Jones followed as the series' writer, and his run features Banner using yoga to take control of the Hulk while he is pursued by a secret conspiracy and aided by the mysterious Mr. Blue. Jones appended his 43-issue Incredible Hulk run with the limited series Hulk/Thing: Hard Knocks #1-4 (Nov. 2004 – Feb. 2005), which Marvel published after putting the ongoing series on hiatus.

 

Peter David, who had initially signed a contract for the six-issue Tempest Fugit limited series, returned as writer when it was decided to make the story, now only five parts, part of the ongoing series instead.[20] David contracted to complete a year on the title. Tempest Fugit revealed that Nightmare has manipulated the Hulk for years, tormenting him in various ways for "inconveniences" that the Hulk had caused him, including the sadistic Hulk Jenkins had introduced.[21] After a four-part tie-in to the House of M crossover and a one-issue epilogue, David left the series once more, citing the need to do non-Hulk work for the sake of his career.[22]

 

[edit]Planet Hulk and World War Hulk

 

Main article: Planet Hulk

 

Main article: World War Hulk

 

 

 

 

 

Promotional art for World War Hulk #1 by David Finch.

 

In the 2006 crossover storyline Planet Hulk by writer Greg Pak, a secret group of superhero leaders, the Illuminati, consider the Hulk an unacceptable potential risk to Earth, and rocket him into space to live a peaceful existence on a planet uninhabited by intelligent life. After a trajectory malfunction, the Hulk crashes on the violent planet Sakaar. Weakened by his journey, he is captured and eventually becomes a gladiator who scars the face of Sakaar's tyrannical emperor. The Hulk becomes a rebel leader and later usurps Sakaar's throne through combat with the Red King and his armies.

 

After Hulk's rise to emperor, the vessel used to send Hulk to Sakaar explodes, killing millions in Sakaar's capital, including his pregnant queen, Caiera, and the damage to the tectonic plates nearly destroys the planet.

 

The Hulk, enraged, returns to Earth with the remnants of Sakaar's citizens, and his allies, the Warbound, seeking retribution against the Illuminati. After laying siege to Manhattan, the Hulk learns one of his allies allowed the explosion to happen when Red King troops planted the bomb. He reverts to his Bruce Banner form after a fight with the Sentry and is taken into S.H.I.E.L.D. custody.

 

[edit]Retitling and new Hulk series

 

As of issue #113 (Feb. 2008), the series was retitled The Incredible Hercules, still written by Greg Pak but starring the mythological demigod Hercules and teenage genius Amadeus Cho.

 

Marvel also launched a new volume of Hulk, written by Jeph Loeb and drawn by Ed McGuinness. The series featured the debut of a new Red Hulk, and Banner emerging from a coma and resuming his changes into the Green Hulk. After issue #12, The Incredible Hulk #600 was released, in which Red Hulk absorbs Hulk's radiation and claims Banner can never turn into the Hulk again. The series then continued with issue #13, with Banner questioning whether he should be glad that Hulk is gone or even if the Hulk is truly gone. The Incredible Hulk also continued with #601 onward, in which Banner seeks out his son Skaar, offering to train him to kill the Hulk in the eventuality of the Hulk's return. Under the aegis of megalomaniac Norman Osborn, Banner is re-exposed to gamma radiation, re-initiating the radiation in his body, thus allowing Banner to turn into the Hulk once more. Osborn explains he wants the Hulk to return, taking Banner out of the equation, and having him fight Skaar, hopefully killing each other.

 

In a multi-series crossover titled "Fall of the Hulks", beginning December 2009, Banner allies himself with the Red Hulk, revealed as a former agent of the supervillain group the Intelligencia,[23] and, in fact, General Thunderbolt Ross; the one Banner had killed was a Life Model Decoy[24] In the concurrent "Hulked Out Heroes" arc, writer Jeff Parker has the Intelligencia irradiate several heroes, turning them into destructive Hulk versions of themselves until they are cured.

 

In the now retitled The Incredible Hulks #612, Banner tries to rekindle his marriage with Betty Ross, who is now the Red She-Hulk.

 

During the Fear Itself storyline, one of the seven Hammers of the Worthy lands near Hulk. When he lifts it, he is transformed into Nul: Breaker of Worlds.[25]

 

[edit]Characterization

 

 

 

[edit]Bruce Banner

 

The core of the Hulk, Bruce Banner has been portrayed differently by different writers, but common themes persist. Banner, a genius, is emotionally withdrawn in most fashions.[1] Banner designed the gamma bomb which caused his affliction, and the ironic twist of his self-inflicted fate has been one of the most persistent common themes.[4] Arie Kaplan describes the character thus: "Bruce Banner lives in a constant state of panic, always wary that the monster inside him will erupt, and therefore he can’t form meaningful bonds with anyone."[7]

 

Throughout the Hulk's published history, writers have continued to frame Bruce Banner in these themes. Under different writers, his fractured personality led to transformations into different versions of the Hulk. These transformations are usually involuntary, and often writers have tied the transformation to emotional triggers, such as rage and fear. As the series has progressed, different writers have adapted the Hulk, changing Hulk's personality to reflect changes in Banner's physiology or psyche. Writers have also refined and changed some aspects of Banner's personality, showing him as emotionally repressed, but capable of deep love for Betty Ross, and for solving problems posed to him. Under the writing of Paul Jenkins, Banner was shown to be a capable fugitive, applying deductive reasoning and observation to figure out the events transpiring around him. On the occasions that Banner has controlled the Hulk's body, he has applied principles of physics to problems and challenges and used deductive reasoning. It was shown after his ability to turn into the Hulk was taken away by the Red Hulk that Banner has been extremely versatile as well as cunning when dealing with the many situations that followed.

 

[edit]The Hulk

 

During the experimental detonation of a gamma bomb, scientist Bruce Banner rushes to save a teenager who has driven onto the testing field. Pushing the teen, Rick Jones, into a trench, Banner himself is caught in the blast, absorbing massive amounts of radiation. He awakens later in an infirmary, seeming relatively unscathed, but that night transforms into a lumbering grey form that breaks through the wall and escapes. A soldier in the ensuing search party dubs the otherwise unidentified creature a "hulk".[26]

 

The original version of the Hulk was often shown as simple and quick to anger. His first transformations were triggered by sundown, and his return to Banner by dawn. However, in Incredible Hulk #4, Banner started using a gamma-ray device to transform at will.[27] In more recent Hulk stories, emotions trigger the change. Although grey in his debut, difficulties for the printer led to a change in his color to green. In the original tale, the Hulk divorces his identity from Banner’s, decrying Banner as "that puny weakling in the picture."[26] From his earliest stories, the Hulk has been concerned with finding sanctuary and quiet,[4] and often is shown reacting emotionally to situations quickly. Grest and Weinberg call Hulk the "dark, primordial side of [banner's] psyche."[6] Even in the earliest appearances, Hulk spoke in the third person. The Hulk retains a modest intelligence, thinking and talking in full sentences, and Lee even gives the Hulk expository dialogue in issue six, allowing readers to learn just what capabilities the Hulk has, when the Hulk says, "But these muscles ain't just for show! All I gotta do is spring up and just keep goin'!" In Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics, Les Daniels addresses the Hulk as an embodiment of cultural fears of radiation and nuclear science. He quotes Jack Kirby thus: "As long as we're experimenting with radioactivity there's no telling what may happen, or how much our advancements may cost us." Daniels continues, "The Hulk became Marvel's most disturbing embodiment of the perils inherent in the atomic age."[28]

 

Though usually a loner, the Hulk helped to form both the Avengers[29] and the Defenders.[30] He was able to determine that the changes were now triggered by emotional stress.[31]

 

The Fantastic Four #12 (March 1963), featured the Hulk's first battle with the Thing. Although many early Hulk stories involve General Thaddeus "Thunderbolt" Ross trying to capture or destroy the Hulk, the main villain is often, like Hulk, a radiation based character, like the Gargoyle or the Leader, along with other foes such as the Toad Men, or Asian warlord General Fang. Ross' daughter, Betty, loves Banner and criticizes her father for pursuing the Hulk. General Ross' right-hand man, Major Glenn Talbot, also loves Betty and is torn between pursuing the Hulk and trying to gain Betty's love more honorably. Rick Jones serves as the Hulk's friend and sidekick in these early tales.

 

In the 1970s, Hulk was shown as more prone to anger and rage, and less talkative. Writers played with the nature of his transformations,[32] briefly giving Banner control over the change, and the ability to maintain control of his Hulk form.

 

Hulk stories began to involve other dimensions, and in one, Hulk met the empress Jarella. Jarella used magic to bring Banner’s intelligence to Hulk, and came to love him, asking him to become her mate. Though Hulk returned to Earth before he could become her king, he would return to Jarella's kingdom of K'ai again.

 

When Bill Mantlo took on writing duties, he led the character into the arena of political commentary when Hulk traveled to Tel Aviv, Israel, encountering both the violence of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, and the Jewish Israeli heroine Sabra. Soon after, Hulk encountered the Arabian Knight, a Bedouin superhero.[4]

 

Under Mantlo's writing, a mindless Hulk was sent to the "Crossroads of Eternity", where Banner was revealed to have suffered childhood traumas which engendered Bruce's repressed rage.[33]

 

Having come to terms with his issues, at least for a time, Hulk and Banner physically separated under John Byrne's writing. Separated from the Hulk by Doc Samson,[34] Banner was recruited by the U.S. government to create the Hulkbusters, a government team dedicated to catching Hulk. Banner and Ross married,[35] but Byrne's change in the character was reversed by Al Milgrom, who reunited the two personas,[36] and with issue #324, returned the Hulk to his grey coloration, with the changes occurring at night, regardless of Banner's emotional state. The Hulk appeared to perish in a gamma bomb explosion, but was instead sent to Jarella's home dimension of K'ai.

 

Shortly after returning to Earth, Hulk took on the identity of "Joe Fixit," a shadowy behind the scenes figure, working in Las Vegas on behalf of a casino owner, Michael Berengetti.[37] For months, Banner was repressed in Hulk’s mind, but slowly began to reappear. Hulk and Banner began to change back and forth again at dusk and dawn, as the character initially had, but this time, they worked together to advance both their goals, using written notes as communication as well as meeting on a mental plane to have conversations. In The Incredible Hulk #333, the Leader describes the grey Hulk persona as strongest during the night of the new moon and weakest during the full moon. Eventually, the Green Hulk began to reemerge.[38]

 

In issue #377, David revamped the Hulk again; Doctor Leonard Samson engages the Ringmaster's services to hypnotize Bruce Banner and force him, the Savage Hulk (Green Hulk) and Mr. Fixit (grey Hulk) to confront Banner's past abuse at the hands of his father Brian Banner. During the session, the three identities confront a "Guilt Hulk," which sadistically torments the three with the abuse of Banner’s father. Facing down this abuse, a new larger and smarter Hulk emerges and completely replaces the "human" Bruce Banner and Hulk personae. This Hulk is a culmination of the three aspects of Banner. He has the vast power of the Savage Hulk, the cunning of the grey Hulk, and the intelligence of Bruce Banner.

 

 

 

 

 

Hulk: Future Imperfect #2 (Jan. 1993) depicting the Maestro. Cover art by George Pérez.

 

Peter David then introduces the Hulk to the Pantheon, a secretive organization built around an extended family of superpowered people.[39] The family members, mostly distant cousins to each other, had codenames based in the mythos of the Trojan War, and were descendants of the founder of the group, Agamemnon. When Agamemnon leaves, he puts the Hulk in charge of the organization. The storyline ends when it is revealed Agamemnon has traded his offspring to an alien race to gain power. The Hulk leads the Pantheon against the aliens, and then moves on. During his leadership of the Pantheon, Hulk encounters a depraved version of himself from the future called Maestro, who Delphi saw in a vision back in The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #401 with part of the events occurring concurrently in The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #415.

 

Thrown into the future, Hulk finds himself allied with Rick Jones, now an old man, in an effort to destroy the tyrant Maestro. Unable to stop him in any other manner, Hulk uses the time machine that brought him to the future to send the Maestro back into the heart of the very Gamma Bomb test that spawned the Hulk.

 

Artistically, the character has been depicted as progressively more muscular in the years since his debut.[40]

 

[edit]Incarnations

 

 

 

     This section requires expansion.

 

[edit]Powers, appearance, and abilities

 

 

 

The Hulk possesses the potential for limitless physical strength depending directly on his emotional state, particularly his anger.[41] This has been reflected in the repeated comment, "The madder Hulk gets, the stronger Hulk gets." After probing, the entity Beyonder once claimed that the Hulk's potential strength had "no finite element inside."[42] His durability, regeneration, and endurance also increase in proportion to his temper.[43] Greg Pak described the Hulk shown during World War Hulk as having a level of physical power where "Hulk was stronger than any mortal—and most immortals—who ever walked the Earth."[44] Various sources have shown that Hulk's strength is normally at least somewhat limited by Banner's subconscious influence, with Hulk being particularly powerful during "World War Hulk" as he and Banner were working together due to their anger at the Illuminati; Jean Grey once deliberately separated the two when fighting Onslaught so that Hulk would have the strength to destroy Onslaught's armor.

 

The Hulk is resistant to most forms of injury or damage. The extent varies between interpretations, but he has withstood the equivalent of core solar temperatures,[45] nuclear explosions,[46] and planet-exploding impacts.[47] Despite his remarkable resiliency, continuous barrages of high-caliber gunfire can hinder his movement to some degree, and this has been consistently portrayed outside the comic books, in both live-action films and animation. He has been shown to have both regenerative and adaptive healing abilities, including growing tissues to allow him to breathe underwater,[48] surviving unprotected in space for extended periods,[49][50] and when injured, healing from most wounds within seconds.[51]

 

His powerful legs allow him to leap into lower Earth orbit or across continents,[52] and he has displayed sufficient superhuman speed to match Thor,[53] or the Sentry.[54] He also has less commonly described powers, including abilities allowing him to "home in" to his place of origin in New Mexico,[55] resist psychic control,[56] grow stronger from radiation[57] or dark magic,[58] and to see and interact with astral forms.[59]

 

In the early days of the first Hulk comic series, "massive" doses of gamma rays (such as from the explosion of a hand-held nuclear grenade) would cause the Hulk to transform back to Bruce Banner, though this ability was written out of the character by the 1970s.

 

As Bruce Banner, he is considered one of the greatest minds on Earth. He has developed expertise in the fields of biology, chemistry, engineering, and physiology, and holds a Ph.D. in nuclear physics. He possesses "a mind so brilliant it cannot be measured on any known intelligence test."[60] Bruce Banner also makes use of his intelligence to create highly advanced technology labelled as "Bannertech", which is on par with technological development from Tony Stark or Doctor Doom. The most common Bannertech Bruce uses is a force field able to shrug off blows from Hulk-level entities, along with a teleporter, which can be used to transport an unknown number of people. Bannertech is also used by Amadeus Cho, as well as the Hulk persona itself.

 

[edit]Related characters

 

 

 

Main article: List of Hulk supporting characters

 

Over the long publication history of the Hulk's adventures, many recurring characters have featured prominently, including his sidekick Rick Jones, love interest Betty Ross, and her father, the often adversarial General "Thunderbolt" Ross.

 

[edit]Family

 

 

 

Bruce had a stillborn child with his first wife, Betty Ross Banner, who became the Red She-Hulk in 2010 comics. He has two sons with his deceased second wife Caiera Oldstrong on the planet Sakaar named Skaar and Hiro-Kala.[61] Skaar was introduced in November 2007 and had his own comic series before joining Bruce in his series. Hiro-Kala was a former slave from planet Sakaar and is currently on his way to Earth to be reunited with his father and brother. Banner also has a daughter from an alternate reality named Lyra with Thundra who was first introduced in August 2008. Banner may also be Carmilla Black's biological father. His cousin, Jennifer Walters, is She-Hulk, who has generally acted as his substitute sister since Bruce visited her family as a child.[62]

 

[edit]Other versions

 

 

 

Main article: Alternative versions of the Hulk

 

In addition to his mainstream incarnation, Hulk has also been depicted in other fictional universes, in which Bruce Banner's transformation, behavior, or circumstances vary from the mainstream setting. In some stories, someone other than Bruce Banner is the Hulk.

 

[edit]In other media

 

 

 

Main article: Hulk in other media

 

The Hulk character and the concepts behind it have been raised to the level of iconic status by many within and outside the comic book industry. In 2003, Official U.S. PlayStation Magazine claimed the character had "stood the test of time as a genuine icon of American pop culture."[63]

 

The Hulk is often viewed as a reaction to war. As well as being a reaction to the Cold War, the character has been a cipher for the frustrations the Vietnam War raised, and Ang Lee said that the Iraq War influenced his direction.[6][64][65] In the Michael Nyman edited edition of The Guardian, Stefanie Diekmann explored Marvel Comics' reaction to the September 11 attacks. Diekmann discussed The Hulk's appearance in the comic book Heroes, claiming that his greater prominence, alongside Captain America, aided in "stressing the connection between anger and justified violence without having to depict anything more than a well-known and well-respected protagonist."[66]

 

In Comic Book Nation, Wright alludes to Hulk's counterculture status, referring to a 1965 Esquire magazine poll amongst college students which "revealed that student radicals ranked Spider-Man and the Hulk alongside the likes of Bob Dylan and Che Guevara as their favorite revolutionary icons." Wright goes on to cite examples of his anti-authority symbol status. Two of these are "The Ballad of the Hulk" by Jerry Jeff Walker, and the Rolling Stone cover for September 30, 1971, a full color Herb Trimpe piece commissioned for the magazine.[32][67] The Hulk has been caricatured in such animated television series as The Simpsons[68] Robot Chicken, and Family Guy,[69] and such comedy TV series as The Young Ones.[70] The character is also used a cultural reference point for someone displaying anger or agitation. For example, in a 2008 Daily Mirror review of an EastEnders episode, a character is described as going "into Incredible Hulk mode, smashing up his flat."[71] The Hulk, especially his alter-ego Bruce Banner, is also a common reference in rap music. The term was represented as an analogue to marijuana in Dr. Dre's 2001,[72] while more conventional references are made in Ludacris and Jermaine Dupri's popular single "Welcome to Atlanta".[73]

 

The 2003 Ang Lee directed Hulk film saw discussion of the character's appeal to Asian Americans.[74] The Taiwanese born Ang Lee commented on the "subcurrent of repression" that underscored the character of The Hulk, and how that mirrored his own experience: "Growing up, my artistic leanings were always repressed—there was always pressure to do something 'useful,' like being a doctor." Jeff Yang, writing for the SF Gate, extended this self-identification to Asian American culture, arguing that "the passive-aggressive streak runs deep among Asian Americans—especially those who have entered creative careers, often against their parents' wishes."[75]

 

The Incredible Hulk was parodied as The Incredible Sulk in Jackpot. Sulk was a normal boy until an upset triggered an 'incredible sulk', much to his teachers' consternation.

 

[edit]Collected editions

 

 

 

Title     Writer     Penciler     Material collected     ISBN

 

Marvel Masterworks: Incredible Hulk Vol. 1-5                    

 

Essential Hulk Vol. 1     Stan Lee     Jack Kirby     Hulk #1-6; Tales to Astonish #60-91 (b&w)     978-0785123743

 

Incredible Hulk Omnibus Vol. 1     Stan Lee     Jack Kirby     The Incredible Hulk #1-6; Tales to Astonish #59-101; The Incredible Hulk (vol. 1)#102     

 

Essential Hulk Vol. 2               Tales to Astonish #92-101; Incredible Hulk (vol. 1) #102-117, Annual #1 (b&w)     978-0785107958

 

Essential Hulk Vol. 3               Incredible Hulk #118-142; Captain Marvel #20-21; Avengers #88 (b&w)     978-0785116899

 

Essential Hulk Vol. 4               Incredible Hulk #143-170 (b&w)     978-0785121930

 

Essential Hulk Vol. 5               Incredible Hulk #171-200, Annual #5 (b&w)     978-0785130659

 

Hulk: Heart of the Atom               Incredible Hulk #140, #148, #156, #202-205, #246-248; What If? #23     

 

Hulk Visionaries: John Byrne Vol. 1     John Byrne     John Byrne     Incredible Hulk #314-319, Annual #14; Marvel Fanfare #29     

 

Hulk Visionaries: Peter David Vol. 1     Peter David     Todd McFarlane     Incredible Hulk #331-339     

 

Hulk Visionaries: Peter David Vol. 2     Peter David     Todd McFarlane, Erik Larsen, Jeff Purves     Incredible Hulk#340-348     

 

Hulk Visionaries: Peter David Vol. 3     Peter David, Steve Englehart     Jeff Purves, Alex Saviuk, Keith Pollard     Incredible Hulk #349-354; Web of Spider-Man #44; Fantastic Four #320     

 

Hulk Visionaries: Peter David Vol. 4     Peter David     Jeff Purves     Incredible Hulk #355-363; Marvel Comics Presents #26, #45     978-0785120964

 

Hulk Visionaries: Peter David Vol. 5     Peter David     Jeff Purves, Dale Keown, Sam Kieth     Incredible Hulk #364-372, Annual #16     978-0785127574

 

Hulk Visionaries: Peter David Vol. 6     Peter David     Dale Keown, Bill Jaaska     Incredible Hulk #373-382     978-0785137627

 

Hulk Visionaries: Peter David Vol. 7     Peter David     Dale Keown, John Romita, Sr.     Incredible Hulk #382-389, Annual #17     978-0785144571

 

Hulk/Wolverine: Six Hours     Bruce Jones     Scott Kolins     Hulk/Wolverine #1-4; Incredible Hulk #181     

 

Incredible Hulk: The End     Peter David     Dale Keown, George Pérez     Incredible Hulk: The End; Incredible Hulk: Future Imperfect #1-2     

 

Incredible Hulk: Dogs of War     Paul Jenkins     Ron Garney, Mike McKone     Incredible Hulk (vol. 2) #12-20     

 

Incredible Hulk Vol. 1: Return of the Monster     Bruce Jones     John Romita, Jr.     Incredible Hulk (vol. 2) #34-39     

 

Incredible Hulk Vol. 2: Boiling Point     Bruce Jones     Lee Weeks     Incredible Hulk (vol. 2) #40-43     

 

Incredible Hulk Vol. 3: Transfer of Power     Bruce Jones     Stuart Immonen     Incredible Hulk (vol. 2) #44-49     

 

Incredible Hulk Vol. 4: Abominable     Bruce Jones     Mike Deodato     Incredible Hulk (vol. 2) #50-54     

 

Incredible Hulk Vol. 5: Hide in Plain Sight     Bruce Jones     Leandro Fernández     Incredible Hulk (vol. 2) #55-59     

 

Incredible Hulk Vol. 6: Split Decisions     Bruce Jones     Mike Deodato     Incredible Hulk (vol. 2) #60-65     

 

Incredible Hulk Vol. 7: Dead Like Me     Bruce Jones, Garth Ennis     Doug Braithwaite, John McCrea     Incredible Hulk (vol. 2) #65-69; Hulk Smash #1-2     

 

Incredible Hulk Vol. 8: Big Things     Bruce Jones     Mike Deodato     Incredible Hulk (vol. 2) #70-76     

 

Incredible Hulk & The Thing: Hard Knocks     Bruce Jones     Jae Lee     "Hulk & Thing: Hard Knocks" #1-4; Giant-Size Superstars #1     

 

Incredible Hulk: Tempest Fugit     Peter David     Lee Weeks, Jae Lee     Incredible Hulk (vol. 2) #77-82     

 

House of M: Incredible Hulk     Peter David     Jorge Lucas, Adam Kubert     Incredible Hulk (vol. 3) #83-87     

 

Incredible Hulk: Prelude to Planet Hulk     Daniel Way     Keu Cha, Juan Santacruz     Incredible Hulk (vol. 2) #88-91     

 

Incredible Hulk: Planet Hulk     Greg Pak     Carlo Pagulayan, Aaron Lopresti, Juan Santacruz, Gary Frank     Incredible Hulk (vol. 2) #92-105; Giant-Size Hulk #1; Amazing Fantasy (vol. 2) #15     

 

World War Hulk     Greg Pak     John Romita, Jr.     World War Hulk #1-5     

 

Hulk Vol. 1: Red Hulk     Jeph Loeb     Ed McGuinness     Hulk (vol. 2) #1-6     

 

Hulk Vol. 2: Red & Green     Jeph Loeb     Art Adams, Frank Cho     Hulk (vol. 2) #7-9; King-Size Hulk #1     

 

Hulk Vol. 3: Hulk No More     Jeph Loeb     Ed McGuinness     Hulk (vol. 2) #10-13; Incredible Hulk #600     

 

Hulk Vol. 4: Hulk vs X-Force     Jeph Loeb     Ian Churchill, Whilce Portacio     Hulk (vol. 2) #14-18     

 

Hulk - Fall of the Hulks Prelude     Jeph Loeb, Greg Pak, Fred Van Lente, Rick Parker     Ed McGuinness     Hulk #2; Skaar: Son of Hulk #1; Hulk: Raging Thunder; Planet Skaar Prologue; All-New Savage She-Hulk #4; Hulk #16; plus material from Amazing Fantasy #15, Hulk #9, Incredible Hulk #600-601     

 

Hulk Vol. 5: Fall of the Hulks     Jeph Loeb     Ed McGuinness     Hulk (vol. 2) #19-21; Fall of the Hulks: Gamma     

 

Hulk - Son of Banner     Greg Pak, Van Lente          Incredible Hulk #601-605     

 

Incredible Hulk Vol. 2: Fall of the Hulks     Greg Pak, Jeff Parker          Incredible Hulk #606-608; Fall of the Hulks: Alpha     

 

Incredible Hulk Vol. 3: World War Hulks               Incredible Hulk #609-611     

 

Hulk: World War Hulks     Jeph Loeb     Ed McGuinness     Hulk (vol. 2) #22-24     

 

[edit]Earlier characters called "The Hulk"

 

 

 

Prior to the debut of the Hulk in May 1962, Marvel had earlier monster characters that used the Hulk name.

 

The first was a huge robot built by Albert Poole called The Hulk. It was actually armor that Poole would wear. The character debuted in June 1960 in Strange Tales #75. In modern day reprints the character's name was changed to Grutan.[76]

 

The second was Xemnu The Living Hulk, a huge furry alien monster, who first appeared in November 1960 in Journey Into Mystery #62.[77] The character reappeared in March 1961 in issue #66. Since then the character has been a mainstay in the Marvel Universe. He was renamed Xemnu The Living Titan.[78]

 

The third was a fictional monster from a monster movie called The Hulk. He was depicted as a huge green slimy monster. The character debuted in July 1961 in Tales to Astonish #21. In modern day reprints the characters name was changed to The Glop[79]

 

[edit]References

 

 

 

^ a b c d e f DeFalco, Tom (May 5, 2003). The Hulk: The Incredible Guide. London: DK Publishing. p. 200. ISBN 978-0789492609.

 

^ Wizard (June 2008)

 

^ "The 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters". Empire. December 5, 2006. Retrieved April 27, 2010.

 

^ a b c d e f g Weinstein, Simcha (June 19, 2006). Up, Up, and Oy Vey!. Baltimore, Maryland: Leviathan Press. pp. 82–97. ISBN 978-1881927327.

 

^ a b [1][dead link]

 

^ a b c Gresh, Lois; Robert Weinberg (September 29, 2003). The Science of Superheroes. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0471468820.[page needed]

 

^ a b Kaplan, Arie (September 1, 2006). Masters of the Comic Book Universe Revealed!. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1556526336.[page needed]

 

^ Hill, Dave (July 17, 2003). "Green with anger". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 23, 2008. Retrieved March 23, 2008.

 

^ Comics Buyer's Guide #1617 (June 2006)

 

^ Starlog #213 (July 2003)

 

^ Warner, John (w). "The Rampaging Editorial" The Rampaging Hulk 1: 40–41 (January 1977), Marvel Comics

 

^ The Hulk! at the Grand Comics Database

 

^ Taylor, Robert (August 3, 2006). "Greg Goes Wild on Planet Pak". Wizard Magazine. Wizard Entertainment Group. Archived from the original on April 2, 2007. Retrieved November 15, 2007.

 

^ Serwin, Andy (July 23, 2007). "The Wizard Retrospective: Mike Mignola". Wizard Magazine. Wizard Entertainment Group. Archived from the original on January 20, 2008. Retrieved November 13, 2007.

 

^ Radford, Bill (February 21, 1999). "Marvel's not-so-jolly green giant gets a fresh start and a new team". The Gazette. p. L4.

 

^ The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators: Hulk (II) (1999–2000)

 

^ Thomas, Michael (August 22, 2000). "John Byrne: The Hidden Answers". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved November 5, 2007.

 

^ The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators: Incredible Hulk (III) (2000–2008)

 

^ The Incredible Hulk vol. 3, #13 (April 2000)

 

^ "Slight change of plan with Hulk". PeterDavid.net. September 30, 2004. Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. Retrieved November 5, 2007.

 

^ The Incredible Hulk vol. 3, #81 (July 2005)

 

^ David, Peter (July 18, 2005). "My leaving Hulk". The Incredible Hulk Message Board. Retrieved August 28, 2005.

 

^ Fall of the Hulks: Gamma

 

^ Loeb, Jeph (w), Ed McGuinness (p), Mark Farmer (i). "Dogs of War" Hulk v2, 23 (July 2010), Marvel Comics

 

^ Fear Itself #1

 

^ a b Incredible Hulk #1 (May 1962). p. 8.

 

^ Incredible Hulk #4 (November 1962)

 

^ Daniels, Les (September 25, 1993). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. New York: Abrams Books. p. 287. ISBN 978-0810925663.

 

^ Avengers #1-2

 

^ Marvel Feature #1-3 (December 1971 – June 1972)

 

^ Tales to Astonish #60

 

^ a b Wright, Bradford (March 22, 2001). Comic Book Nation. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 336. ISBN 978-0801865145.

 

^ The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #312

 

^ The Incredible Hulk vol. 2 #315

 

^ The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #319

 

^ The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #323

 

^ The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #347

 

^ The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #372

 

^ The Incredible Hulk vol. 2 #382

 

^ Randerson, James (May 17, 2006). "Superman copycats 'risk health'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 23, 2008. Retrieved March 23, 2008.

 

^ But not stronger than Tuan the mighty warrior. The Incredible Hulk vol. 3, #109-111 (Oct.-Dec. 2007)

 

^ Secret Wars vol. 2, #8

 

^ The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #394 (June 1994)

 

^ "Hulk, Skaar & Hercules". Broken Frontier. Retrieved April 27, 2010.

 

^ Fantastic Four #435 (2006); World War Hulk #2 (2007); Incredible Hulk Annual 1997

 

^ The Incredible Hulk (vol. 2) #440 (April 1996); Fantastic Four #433 (2006); The Incredible Hulk vol. 3, #105 (June 2007)

 

^ Marvel Comics Presents #52; Silver Surfer vol. 2, #125; Iron Man vol. 2, #19 (2007)

 

^ The Incredible Hulk vol. 3, #77

 

^ World War Hulk: Prelude (2007)

 

^ Hulk (Bruce Banner) at Marvel.com

 

^ The Incredible Hulk #398 (Oct. 1992)

 

^ The Incredible Hulk vol. 3, #33 (Dec. 2001); The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #254 (Dec. 1980)

 

^ The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #440 (April 1996)

 

^ World War Hulk #5 (2007)

 

^ The Incredible Hulk (vol. 1) #314

 

^ The Defenders #12 (Feb. 1974); The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #259 (May 1981); Cable #34 (1996); World War Hulk: X-Men #1 (2007)

 

^ The Incredible Hulk vol. 3, #105 (June 2007); The Incredible Hulk: Future Imperfect #2; Fantastic Four #433; World War Hulk: X-Men #2

 

^ The Incredible Hulk (vol. 3) #82; The Darkness/Hulk #1

 

^ The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #369; The Incredible Hulk vol. 3, #82

 

^ Pisani, Joseph. "The Smartest Superheroes". BusinessWeek. Retrieved December 9, 2007.

 

^ Pepose, David (June 11, 2010). "DARK SON Rising As The Other Son of HULK Hits Earth". Newsarama. Retrieved June 11, 2010.

 

^ The Avengers vol. 3. #73-75

 

^ "Smash!". Archived from the original on March 23, 2008. Retrieved March 23, 2008.

 

^ Lahr, John (June 30, 2003). "Becoming the Hulk". The New Yorker (New York): 72.

 

^ Phelan, Stephen (December 23, 2007). "The Clash of Symbols". Sunday Herald (Glasgow): p. 42.

 

^ Diekmann, Stefanie (April 24, 2004). "Hero and superhero". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 23, 2008. Retrieved March 23, 2008.

 

^ Goldberg, Jonah (May 7, 2002). "Spin City". National Review Online. Archived from the original on March 23, 2008. Retrieved March 23, 2008.

 

^ "I Am Furious Yellow". The Simpsons. April 28, 2002. No. 18, season 13.

 

^ "Chitty Chitty Death Bang". Danny Smith (writer). Family Guy. Fox Broadcasting Company. April 18, 1999. No. 3, season 1.

 

^ "Summer Holiday". The Young Ones. June 19, 1984. No. 6, series 2.

 

^ Quigley, Maeve (February 5, 2008). "We love telly: We love soaps". Daily Mirror (London): p. 1.

 

^ "Some L.A. Niggaz" from 2001. Dr. Dre. 1999.

 

^ "Welcome to Atlanta" from Instructions and Word of Mouf. Jermaine Dupri and Ludacris. 2002.

 

^ Marchetti, Gina (November 2004). "Hollywood Taiwan". Film International 2 (6): 42–51. doi:10.1386/fiin.2.6.42. ISSN 1651-6826. Archived from the original on March 23, 2008. Retrieved March 23, 2008.

 

^ Yang, Jeff (June 1, 2006). "Look... Up in the sky! It's Asian Man!". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Newspapers. Archived from the original on March 23, 2008. Retrieved March 23, 2008.

 

^ "The Hulk (Albert Poole, Strange Tales character)". Marvunapp.com. Retrieved 2011-02-12.

 

^ "The Hulk". Monsterblog.oneroom.org. Retrieved 2011-02-12.

 

^ "Xemnu the Titan (Golden Age monster, Hulk/She-Hulk foe)". Marvunapp.com. Retrieved 2011-02-12.

 

^ "Hulk (aka the Glop - Pre-FF monster)". Marvunapp.com. Retrieved 2011-02-12.

 

[edit]External links

 

 

 

     United States portal

 

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     Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Hulk (comics)

 

Hulk at the Marvel Universe wiki

 

Hulk at the Comic Book DB

 

Hulk at the Grand Comics Database

 

Hulk at the Big Comic Book Database

 

Hulk at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators

 

Hulk at the Internet Movie Database

 

Hulk at the Open Directory Project

 

Incredible Hulk cover gallery

 

Incredible Hulk translation into Russian language

 

Incredible Hulk by Stan Lee at Comic Book and Strip Service

 

Incredible Hulk (1982) animated series at Toon Zone

 

The Incredible Hulk Library

 

Comic historian Alan Kistler's "List of 10 Must Read Hulk Stories"

 

The Incredible Hulk at the I Love Comix Archive

 

Comics Buyer's Guide Fan Awards

 

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Sério que a reputação tem a ver com o tamanho dos posts? Tenho certeza que tem o dedo do Scofa nisso.06

E quem está vencendo é o Plutão. 06

 

Como é o nome daquele usuário que posta comentários enormes?... Acho que é o Gustavo Adler. Ele merece mais, porque se dá ao trabalho de escrever, enquanto o Plutão já pega pronto.

 

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Sabe o mais legal desse sistema? No anterior nós precisaríamos da ajuda de outra pessoa para subir. Nesse' date=' nem isso mais![/quote']

 

 

 

lol.gif

 

 

 

Magnífico teu comentário, Tê.

 

 

 

O sistema antigo era ineficiente pq era totalmente atrelado ao que os outros pensam de ti pessoalmente, em termos de amizade. Esse é ineficiente pq não importa nada o que ninguém pensa de ti, contanto que tu atrolhe o fórum. 06.gif

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Sabe o mais legal desse sistema? No anterior nós precisaríamos da ajuda de outra pessoa para subir. Nesse' date=' nem isso mais![/quote']

 

 

 

smileys/lol.gif" align="middle" />

 

 

 

Magnífico teu comentário, Tê.

 

 

 

O sistema antigo era ineficiente pq era totalmente atrelado ao que os outros pensam de ti pessoalmente, em termos de amizade. Esse é ineficiente pq não importa nada o que ninguém pensa de ti, contanto que tu atrolhe o fórum. smileys/06.gif" align="middle" />

 

 

 

16.giflol.gif

 

 

 

Ah, mas enfim, a moderação bem que tentou. Só espero que eles tenham a humildade em admitir que também não deu certo.

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Sabe o mais legal desse sistema? No anterior nós precisaríamos da ajuda de outra pessoa para subir. Nesse' date=' nem isso mais![/quote']Eu tive trabalho pra te colocar no top. Você ficou na penúltima posição, e foi quando eu cansei de tanto dar thanks.

 

 

 

Eu fiquei no top só no ultimo dia kong_chorando.gif Mas realmente foi um momento mágico. emorike.png

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Sabe o mais legal desse sistema? No anterior nós precisaríamos da ajuda de outra pessoa para subir. Nesse' date=' nem isso mais![/quote']

 

 

 

smileys/lol.gif" align="middle" />

 

 

 

Magnífico teu comentário, Tê.

 

 

 

O sistema antigo era ineficiente pq era totalmente atrelado ao que os outros pensam de ti pessoalmente, em termos de amizade. Esse é ineficiente pq não importa nada o que ninguém pensa de ti, contanto que tu atrolhe o fórum. smileys/06.gif" align="middle" />

 

 

 

smileys/16.gif" align="middle" /> smileys/lol.gif" align="middle" />

 

 

 

Ah, mas enfim, a moderação bem que tentou. Só espero que eles tenham a humildade em admitir que também não deu certo.

 

 

 

Com certeza, não to desmerecendo o empenho dos caras. Mas atribuir um número que identifique o quanto uma pessoa é estimada dentro de um grupo é uma tarefa pra lá de complicada. Quando eu saquei essa questão do número de caracteres, eu pensei de brincadeira em quais fatores eu levaria em conta pra criar esse sistema, e não sei nem se seria possível programar isso. 06.gif

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Sabe o mais legal desse sistema? No anterior nós precisaríamos da ajuda de outra pessoa para subir. Nesse' date=' nem isso mais![/quote']Eu tive trabalho pra te colocar no top. Você ficou na penúltima posição, e foi quando eu cansei de tanto dar thanks.

 

 

 

Eu fiquei no top só no ultimo dia kong_chorando.gif Mas realmente foi um momento mágico. emorike.png

Você foi a única pessoa pra quem eu dei um monte de pontos por quaisquer posts. emorike.png

 

Mas foi só quando a coisa já estava descambando e porque você é uma das pessoas que mereciam estar no top.

 

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